(Objective) To investigate the superiority in 2 radical prostatectomies, we compared the initial results of robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) to those of retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) performed during the same period at Nagakubo hospital. (Patients and methods) The study was conducted on a total of 160 patients having undergone radical prostatectomy from April 2009 to March 2012 (92 patients with RARP and 68 with RRP). We investigated surgical stress, cancer control, functional outcomes and complications in both groups. (Results) Surgical stress; operation time was significantly shorter with RRP; however, blood loss and serum total protein loss were significantly less with RARP. White blood cell count at 2 days after surgery was significantly less with RARP. The rates of analgesic use and SIRS were similar. Although the date on which taking solid meals resumed did not differ, the duration of indwelling urethral catheter and admission period were significantly shorter with RARP. Cancer control; the rates of positive surgical margin were 27.2% and 19.1% with RARP and RRP, respectively (p=0.24), and biochemical recurrence was seen in 12.0% and 19.1% with RARP and RRP, respectively (p=0.73), which were not significantly different. Continence; urinary continence outcomes with RARP and RRP were 17% and 4% for urinary continence at discharge (p=0.01), 1.8 and 3.3 months for no more than one pad per day (p<0.01), and 4.3 and 6.2 months for pad free (p=0.03), respectively. Sexual function; erection recovery within 6 mo was only observed with RARP; however, overall recovery rate of erection was 65% and 75% with RARP and RRP, respectively (p=0.69). Complications; 1 case with a rectal injury was seen in both groups, but complication rates were 8.7% and 16.2% with RARP and RRP, respectively (p=0.22). (Conclusion) In spite of our initial experience of RARP, surgical stress and complications with RARP were considered to be superior to that with RRP. Cancer control and sexual function showed no significant difference between RARP and RRP, however, urinary continence outcome is significantly superior with RARP. Our data suggest that treatment outcome after initial experience with RARP is not inferior to that with RRP, and better results are expected by improving surgical techniques.
(Purpose) We determined whether laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC) was useful for the patients with bladder cancer. (Materials and methods) We investigated the surgical outcome of LRC in the initial 30 patients with bladder cancer. (Results) Mean patients age was 68 (54-81) years old. Twenty six male and 4 female were enrolled. Lymphnode dissection was variably performed under aeroperitoneum. Twenty six patients were undergone ileal conduit and 4 patients were undergone ileal neobladder as urinary diversion. The urinary diversion of all cases was undergone extracorporeally. Seventeen patients were received platinum based neo and adjivant-chemotherapy. Mean surgical time was 684 (398-950) min, and mean aeroperitoneum time was 418 (235-660) min. Intraoperative major complications were ureter injury and blood loss. Mean blood loss was 1,063 (150-2,730) ml intraoperatively. Ileus and acute pyeronephritis were observed in the 3 patients postoperatively. Seven patients relapsed and 2 patients died with bladder cancer in 14.9 months of median follow-up period (0.7-35.9) after the surgery. Progression free survival rate and overall survival rate at a year after surgery were 75.2% and 100%, respectively. (Conclusions) The surgical therapy with LRC was well tolerated and successful in the patients with bladder cancer.
(Objective) The standard care for invasive bladder cancer is radical cystectomy with urinary diversion, but laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC) is still being evaluated. We describe our initial experience of laparoscopic radical cystectomy compared to open radical cystectomy (ORC). (Patients and methods) From January 2000 to June 2012, 84 patients underwent radical cystectomy by ORC (n=54) or LRC (n=30). Treatment outcomes including surgical and oncological outcomes between LRC and ORC were compared. We also assessed learning curve during LRC as to blood loss, operating time and complication rate. (Results) The patients' characteristics were similar in LRC and ORC groups except for ASA score. Importantly, Operating time during LRC was longer but complication rate of LRC was lower than that of ORC (586 min vs 424 min and 40% vs 69%, respectively). In addition, pathological stage or outcomes were similar in both groups and there were no significant difference between LRC and ORC groups in terms of overall and recurrence free survival rate. As for learning curve of LRC, operating time and blood loss tended to decrease with increased experience. (Conclusion) These results indicate that LRC could be performed safely with decreased complication rate and similar oncological outcomes compared to ORC.
(Purpose) We examined the safety and efficacy of photo-selective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) using a 120-W high-performance system (HPS) for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). (Patients and methods) We prospectively reviewed the records of 25 patients who had undergone PVP using a 120-W HPS in our institution. Patients were evaluated pre-operatively, and at 2 weeks and 1, 3, and 6 months post-operatively. (Result) The mean age was 73.6 years, and the mean estimated preoperative prostate volume was 51.5 ml. Laser vaporization was performed successfully in all 25 patients. The operating time was 104±29 minutes. The mean decrease in hemoglobin was 0.6 g/dl on post-operative day 1. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), QOL score, maximum flow rate, and residual urine volume were significantly improved 2 weeks after the procedure. There were no serious complications during the peri-operative period, and no patients were transfused. (Conclusion) PVP using a 120-W HPS was shown to be an effective, safe procedure for patients with BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms.
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are highly malignant soft tissue sarcomas. It is very rare for MPNST to arise in the abdominal wall. We report a case of abdominal wall MPNST that was difficult to distinguish from a urachal disease. A 72-year-old woman found a mass of the umbilicus in October 2011. She visited a digestive surgery department in November because it gradually enlarged. Diagnostic imaging suggested a urachal tumor. She was then referred to our clinic. Contrast enhanced CT showed that the 5-cm cystic tumor extended from the umbilicus to abdominal wall. The tumor showed low uptake value in PET-CT. We diagnosed her with a urachal cyst, but could not deny urachal carcinoma. Therefore, we performed surgical resection in January 2012. The pathological diagnosis was MPNST. She has not experienced recurrence for 9 months. MPNST mostly occur in the retroperitoneum close to the spine, extremities, head, and neck. It is very rare for them to occur in the abdominal wall. This is the sixth case including overseas reports. In addition, this is the first case in which it was difficult to distinguish from a urachal disease.
We report a repair of a right ureteral stenosis with the appendix as a ureteral substitute. A 20-year-old male suffered a traumatic injury in a motorcycle accident. He underwent an emergency operation for right hemothorax, intra-abdominal hemorrhage, and bone fracture of right leg. Three weeks later, right hydronephrosis and urinoma were identified. Combined retrograde and antegrade pyelography demonstrated a severe 7 cm long stenosis in the right upper ureter. After an indwelling right nephrostomy catheter was placed, he returned to the hospital for a ureteral reconstruction. We planned to substitute the appendix to bridge the stenotic ureter. After transecting the appendix from the cecum, the mesoappendix was spatulated from mesoileum. Ureteral tissue was resected and appendix was interposed. Three weeks later, ureteral stent was removed. DTPA diuretic renogram scintigraphy demonstrated no evidence of obstruction five weeks later. Two years postoperatively, the patient was asymptomatic and his renal function was normal. Although only few cases of ureteral repair with appendix are known, uretero-appandix replacement is less invasive and complicated, and recommended in some cases.
A 38 year-old male was referred to our hospital due to bilateral hydronephrosis. Cystoscopy revealed multiple edematous papillary tumors that exist on the prostatic urethra, bladder neck, trigone, and lateral wall on both sides. He underwent a transurethral resection of bladder tumors. The pathological diagnosis was cystitis glandularis. He was given steroid orally for 6 months and had no sign of recurrence after 2 years.
Zonisamide is an antiepileptic drug mainly used in patients with refractory epilepsy. One of the urological adverse effects caused by zonisamide is urinary lithiasis. We reported bilateral urinary lithiasis with zonisamide developed for a short period of time. A 10 year-old girl had been treated with zonisamide for intractable epilepsy for nine years. She progressively developed microscopic hematuria as well as crystalluria while being hospitalized for ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection. A computed tomography (CT) showed bilaterally hydronephrotic kidneys obstructed by multiple ureteral calculi. What was impressive was the fact that any single urinary calculus was not identified in a CT image taken just three weeks prior to this event. Then the diagnosis was made of zonisamide-induced bilateral urinary calculi and zonisamide treatment was discontinued. However, since the deterioration of renal function and left-sided hydronephrosis progressed, we performed the construction of right-sided percutaneous nephrostomy (PNS) and the transurethral placement of a left ureteral stent. Subsequently her condition was stabilized and all of these stones were discharged. The analysis of these stones showed mainly calcium phosphatic calculus. We eventually removed both the right PNS and the left ureteral stent. Since then, there has not been any recurrence thus far. We need to recognize the risk of progressively developing renal calculi during zonisamide treatment for a relatively short period of time in the face of dehydration.