Journal of Physical Therapy Science
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Original Article
  • Dwi Basuki Wibowo, Rudiansyah Harahap, Achmad Widodo, Gunawan Dwi Hary ...
    Volume 29 (2017) Issue 12 Pages 2068-2074
    Released: December 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] To investigate the effect of heel height on the distribution of plantar foot force and heel pain in patients with a heel spur. [Subjects and Methods] Plantar force was measured using 8 force sensors in 16 patients (3 men, 13 women), with symptomatic heel spur for 4 heel heights (0–4 cm). Sensors were located at the hallux (T1); medial to lateral metatarsals (M1 through M3), mid-foot (MF); and at the central, lateral, and medial heel (CH, LH, and MH). Pain was evaluated using the minimum compression force that caused pain and was measured using an algometer. [Results] Load bearing shifted from the heel (CH) to the mid-foot (MF) and hallux (T1) with increasing heel height. Raising the heel from 2 to 3 cm reduced the magnitude of load bearing, relative to the minimum compression force for pain, by 3.70% at the LH and 2.35% at the MH. Excellent clinical outcomes, defined by a 70–100% decrease in pain, were achieved in 10/16 participants with the use of a 2-cm and 3-cm heel height in men and women, respectively. [Conclusion] Increasing heel height effectively decreases the plantar force on the heel during weight-bearing activities.

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  • Ji-Hoon Kim, Jae-Wan Choi, Sang-Hoon Lee, Young-Seok Cho
    Volume 29 (2017) Issue 12 Pages 2075-2076
    Released: December 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] This study investigated the difference in tongue strength with and without visual feedback in healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 30 healthy adults were recruited. We measured the strength of the anterior region of the tongue before and after applying visual feedback using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. [Results] The tongue strength was measured as 45.5 ± 9.3 kilopascals with visual feedback and 41.1 ± 8.6 kilopascals without visual feedback, showing a statistically significant difference. [Conclusion] Visual feedback may be an effective tool for increasing the strength of the tongue.

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  • Seung-Oh Shin, Nan-Soo Kim
    Volume 29 (2017) Issue 12 Pages 2077-2080
    Released: December 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] We investigated the effects of upper extremity resistance exercise with elastic bands on respiratory function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen children were divided into two groups: the experimental (n=8) and control (n=7) groups. Both groups performed general exercises for 30 minutes per session, two times a week during the intervention period. The experimental group performed an additional upper extremity resistance exercise with elastic bands for 20–30 minutes per session, twice weekly for 8 weeks. Pulmonary function, and respiratory muscle and grip strength were measured before and after the exercise. [Results] There was no significant difference in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity, and peak expiratory flow before and after the intervention in either group. The increment of maximal expiratory pressure was significantly greater in the experimental group, compared with the control group. In addition, grip strength was significantly increased in the experimental group after the intervention than before. [Conclusion] We found that upper extremity resistance exercise with elastic bands has a positive effect on expiration and improves grip strength in children with cerebral palsy.

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  • Yeong-Deok Choi, Myung-Joon Kim, Jung-Ho Lee
    Volume 29 (2017) Issue 12 Pages 2081-2084
    Released: December 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and concentric contraction of the muscles surrounding the elbow joints on pain and muscular strength in the elbow joints of patients with lateral epicondylitis. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 30 patients who visited our hospital with the main complaint of lateral pain in the elbow joint. All subjects were randomly and equally assigned to an experimental group that conducted concentric contraction exercises in sync with a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation cycle and a control group that performed concentric contraction after the application of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Patients used a 10 cm visual analogue scale to evaluate the level of pain in their elbow joints. To measure the strength of muscles around the elbow joints, the subjects’ paretic grip strength was measured using an electronic grip strength dynamometer. [Results] No statistically significant difference in visual analog scale was found between the two groups. Regarding changes in grip strength, changes in the experimental group’s grip strength were significantly greater than those in the control group. [Conclusion] These results can be used as a basis for reducing pain and improving strength in lateral epicondylitis patients.

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  • Young-Rim Paik, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Doo-Ho Lee, Hee-Su Park, Dong-Hwan Oh
    Volume 29 (2017) Issue 12 Pages 2085-2086
    Released: December 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of mirror therapy and neuromuscular electrical stimulation on upper extremity function in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study recruited 8 stroke patients. All patients were treated with mirror therapy and neuromuscular electrical stimulation five times per week for 4 weeks. Upper limb function evaluation was performed using upper extremity part of fugl meyer assessment. [Results] Before and after intervention, fugl meyer assessment showed significant improvement. [Conclusion] In this study, mirror therapy and neuromuscular electrical stimulation are effective methods for upper extremity function recovery in stroke patients.

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  • Wonjong Yu, Seongsoo Cha, Samki Seo
    Volume 29 (2017) Issue 12 Pages 2087-2089
    Released: December 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of static and dynamic balance by using Medicine-ball and Swiss-ball exercises. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-six normal adults who agreed to participate were included in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to the Medicine-ball (n=18) and Swiss-ball groups (n=18). The participants performed the exercise for 6 weeks. Balance error scoring system and one leg standing test were performed to determine static balance, and functional reach test and timed up and go test were performed to determine dynamic balance. [Results] A significant improvement was observed from the Medicine-ball and Swiss-ball exercises, but no difference was found between the groups. In addition, a significant difference was found between balance error scoring system, one leg standing test and functional reach test after pre- and post-exercise of the Medicine-ball and Swiss-ball. [Conclusion] The findings of this study showed that the Medicine-ball and Swiss-balls were effective in improving static and dynamic balance.

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  • Sang-Yeol Lee, Su-Kyoung Lee, Su-Hong Ahn
    Volume 29 (2017) Issue 12 Pages 2090-2093
    Released: December 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] This study aims to determine the effects of various wheelchair handle grip directions on the muscle activities of the upper body of an assistant during movement on ascending and descending ramps. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were 17 young and healthy participants whose mean age, height, and weight was 23.0 ± 2.7 years, 175.5 ± 4.7 cm, and 70.0 ± 14.2 kg, respectively; all subjects voluntarily consented to participate. Three grip directions were tested: general grip, medial grip, and neutral grip. Muscle activities in the serratus anterior, rhomboid, erector spine, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, bracioradialis, flexor carpi radialis, and extensor carpi radialis were measured using an electromyograph (EMG). [Results] Significant differences were seen in the muscle activities of the biceps brachii, bracioradialis, and flexor carpi radialis during wheelchair movement on an ascending ramp and in the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during movement on a descending ramp. [Conclusion] Measurement results showed that the general grip resulted in the highest muscle activities in the upper body of assistants during wheelchair movement on both ascending and descending ramps.

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  • Hayato Shigetoh
    Volume 29 (2017) Issue 12 Pages 2094-2096
    Released: December 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] Hypervigilance to pain is an important aspect of the fear-avoidance model of pain that may be associated with disability more than other psychological factors examined. The aim of the study was to investigate how hypervigilance to pain influences disability compared with other psychological factors examined. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 50 elderly patients with chronic pain (7 men and 43 women, 80.3 ± 7.8 years). To assess the pain level, the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) was used. To assess psychological factors, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK), the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), and the Pain Vigilance Awareness Questionnaire (PVAQ) were used. To assess activities of daily living, the Pain Disability Assessment Scale (PDAS) was used. A multiple regression analysis (stepwise method) was performed with the PDAS as the dependent variable, and the NRS, HADS-anxiety, HADS-depression, TSK, PCS-rumination, PCS-magnification, PCS-helplessness, and PVAQ, as the independent variables. [Results] The results of a multiple regression analysis showed that the PDAS scores were affected by the PVAQ and NRS scores. [Conclusion] Hypervigilance influenced disability more than other psychological factors examined.

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  • Morteza Taheri, Khadijeh Irandoust
    Volume 29 (2017) Issue 12 Pages 2097-2099
    Released: December 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of balance and computerized cognitive training on psychomotor performance in elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Twentynine elderly females with the mean age of 63–71 years old were applied voluntarily and randomly allocated to four groups: balance training (3 d/wk for 12 wk), balance training with computerized cognitive training (3 d/wk for 12 wk), computerized cognitive training group and control group. Psychomotor performance of all subjects was measured by Vienna Test System which was a computerized psychological assessment tool. Determination test (DT) and Visual Pursuit Test (VPT) were used as indexes of psychomotor performance. [Results] The results suggested that DT and VPT were significantly improved in all experimental groups with greater improvement in the balance supplemented with computerized cognitive training group. [Conclusion] Balance training and computerized cognitive are highly recommended in elderly with the aim of increasing cognitive performance.

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  • Yasuaki Kusumoto, Yoshihiro Kita, Satomi Kusaka, Yoshinori Hiyama, Jun ...
    Volume 29 (2017) Issue 12 Pages 2100-2102
    Released: December 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] This study aimed to develop a tablet app that emulates paper questionnaires used in clinical care, and to verify the difference between the utility of tablet survey methods and paper questionnaire methods with elderly people. [Subjects and Methods] A tablet app was developed in the Java language. A questionnaire was provided to 30 community-dwelling elderly people. The subjects were randomly allocated to the group responding on the tablet (tablet group) or that responding to a paper-based questionnaire (questionnaire group). Assessed items included response time to questions, whether or not they had queries regarding the survey, and data input time. For the tablet group, a questionnaire was conducted regarding the operability of the tablet. [Results] There was no difference in response time between the two groups. Significantly more people in the tablet group had queries regarding the survey. Data input time was 426 seconds for the tablet group and 1268 seconds for the questionnaire group. In the survey regarding tablet operability, there were no negative opinions about the visibility of the screen. [Conclusion] Tablets can be used with elderly people to shorten the data input time. The present findings suggested that tablet surveys could be effective for a large-scale investigation.

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  • Sang-Mi Jung, Won-Ho Choi
    Volume 29 (2017) Issue 12 Pages 2103-2106
    Released: December 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate whether a virtual reality (VR) intervention has an influence in improving the motor function and activities of daily living (ADLs) in patients with lesions in different regions of the brain. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven subjects with hemiplegic stroke were recruited in this study, which was conducted from January to February, 2017. They received a VR intervention once a day for 30 min, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and the Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) were used to assess the post-stroke patients’ motor function and ADLs, respectively. [Results] There were significant differences in pre- and post-test outcomes of the Arm and Coordination and Speed (CS) in the FMA and K-MBI in the middle cerebral artery group (MCAG). Moreover, there were significant differences in all sub-tests of FMA and K-MBI in the Basal ganglia group (BGG). In addition, there were significant differences in the pre-test outcomes of Arm and pre- and post-test outcomes of Hand in the FMA between the two groups. [Conclusion] This study revealed that VR intervention improved the upper limb motor function and ADLs of post-stroke patients, especially those in the BGG.

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  • Camila Haddad Leal de Godoy, Lara Jansiski Motta, Eugenio Jose Garcia, ...
    Volume 29 (2017) Issue 12 Pages 2107-2111
    Released: December 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] Problems involving the temporomandibular joint and associated structures can lead to temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The aim of the present study was to evaluate muscle activity in individuals with a diagnosis of TMD before and after treatment with low-level laser therapy (LLLT) through the use of electromyography (EMG). [Subjects and Methods] Male and female individuals aged 14 to 23 years were evaluated. TMD was determined by a clinical examination and the administration of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, followed by the evaluation of sensitivity to palpation of the masseter and anterior temporal muscles as well as the EMG determination of muscle activity. The participants were randomly allocated to an active LLLT group (n=9) and sham group (n=7). Twelve sessions of LLLT were conducted using a wavelength of 780 nm, energy density of 25 J/cm2, power of 50 mW, power density of 1.25 W/cm2 and a 20-second exposure time or sham LLLT. Muscle activity was determined prior to treatment and after the last session. [Results] During the isometric evaluation of the masseter and anterior temporal muscles, an increase in the mean EMG signal was found in the group submitted to active LLLT. When evaluated individually, some participants in the active LLLT group demonstrated a reduction in muscle activity, but no significant differences were found in the mean EMG signal between the initial and final evaluations. [Conclusion] Further studies with a larger sample size are needed to confirm the present findings.

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  • Eman Awad, Hamada Ahmed Hamada Ahmed, Amal Yousef, Rami Abbas
    Volume 29 (2017) Issue 12 Pages 2112-2115
    Released: December 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] This study was carried out to determine the effect of an exercise program on pelvic pain and posture associated with endometriosis. [Subjects and Methods] This study was designed as repeated measures design that compared one group of 20 patients (age range 26–32 years) diagnosed by laparoscope as having mild or moderate endometriosis before, after 4 weeks, and after 8 weeks of exercise program. The exercise program parameters were based on the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines for exercise suitable for sedentary women. To assess the intensity of endometriosis pain, a present pain intensity scale was used. On the other hand, a raster stereography system was used to assess the posture. [Results] After 8 weeks of performing the exercise regimen, there was a statistically significant decrease in the patients’ pain intensity and thoracic kyphosis angle program in compared with pre treatment. [Conclusion] Ultimately it was proven that eight weeks of an exercise program is very effective in decreasing pain and postural abnormalities associated with endometriosis.

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  • Yuji Fujino, Kazu Amimoto, Satoshi Sugimoto, Kazuhiro Fukata, Masahide ...
    Volume 29 (2017) Issue 12 Pages 2116-2120
    Released: December 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] The relationship between white matter lesions (WMLs) and pushing behavior (PB) is still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether damage from WMLs affects the functional outcome of PB after acute stroke. [Subjects and Methods] In total, 37 patients were included. PB was assessed using the standardized Scale for Contraversive Pushing (SCP). Stroke types were classified as total anterior circulation infarct (TACI), partial anterior circulation infarct (PACI), or lacunar syndrome using the Bamford classification. WML severity was categorized into four groups using the Fazekas visual scale. Thereafter, patients were divided into 4 groups according to the stroke type and/or presence of WMLs. The SCP, Trunk Control Test (TCT), Stroke Impairment Assessment Set (SIAS), and Barthel Index were the outcome measures. [Results] The SCP and TCT in patients with PACI without WMLs were better than those in patients with TACI with or without WMLs. Regarding SCP, TCT, and SIAS, patients with TACI had poorer values compared with PACI, regardless of WML severity. Barthel Index efficiency was not significantly different between the groups. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that moderate to severe WMLs and PACI had a relationship with PB severity and truncal balance.

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  • Dae-Keun Jeong, Hyun-Ho Choi, Jeong-il Kang, Hyun Choi
    Volume 29 (2017) Issue 12 Pages 2121-2125
    Released: December 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of pelvic movements on the back function of patients with lumbar disc herniation when lumbar stabilization exercise was applied to the patients, suggest an intervention method that can be used in future clinical therapies. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty patients with lumbar disc herniation underwent the intervention 30 minutes per day, three times per week for 4 weeks. Of them, 15 patients were assigned to the balance center stabilization resistance exercise group (experimental group I) and the other 15 were assigned to the three-dimensional stabilization exercise group (experimental group II). Before the intervention, disc herniation index was measured using magnetic resonance imaging, sacral angle was measured using X-ray, and back function was measured using the KODI. Four weeks later, these three factors were re-measured and analyzed. [Results] There was a significant pre- versus post-intervention difference in disc herniation index, sacral angle, and KODI in experimental group I and a significant difference in disc herniation index and KODI in experimental group II, and each group of disc herniation index and sacral angle had a significant difference. In experimental group I, each disc herniation index and sacral angle had a negative correlation. [Conclusion] The lumbar stabilization exercise, which controls balance using pelvic movements, improves mobility and stability of the sacroiliac joint; therefore, it increases pelvic and back movements. These kinds of movements not only improved proprioception sense, they also had positive effects on lumbar disc function recovery.

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  • Kazumi Izutsu, Kazuhiko Arima, Yasuyo Abe, Takuhiro Okabe, Yoshihito T ...
    Volume 29 (2017) Issue 12 Pages 2126-2132
    Released: December 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the sustainability and efficacy of exercise intervention, as implemented by professionally trained volunteers, on the health-related quality of life among Japanese community-dwelling older females. [Subjects and Methods] We conducted a non-randomized observational prospective study of a six-month exercise intervention delivered by volunteers or health professionals. Health-related quality of life was scored using the Short Form 36 Health Survey before and after the intervention. Participants were classified into three groups, comprising those with improved health, maintained health, and reduced health. [Results] Among 127 Japanese community-dwelling females aged >65 years, 50 of 62 (80.6%) females involved in the intervention conducted by volunteers, and 55 of 65 (84.6%) females involved in the intervention conducted by health professionals, completed the six-month intervention program. Scoring revealed that interventions by both volunteers and health professionals had a maintaining or improving effect on scores in >70% of participants instead of an expected six-month aging decline. [Conclusion] Exercise intervention by trained volunteers was sustainable and effective for improving the health-related quality of life among Japanese community-dwelling older females. Professionally trained volunteers could benefit communities in helping older persons avoid the need for daily nursing care through promoting health activities.

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  • Majid Ashraf Ganguie, Behrouz Attarbashi Moghadam, Nastaran Ghotbi, Az ...
    Volume 29 (2017) Issue 12 Pages 2133-2137
    Released: December 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] This study examined the immediate effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on a six-minute walking test, Borg scale questionnaire and hemodynamic responses in patients with chronic heart failure. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty patients with stable systolic chronic heart failure came to the pathophysiology laboratory three times. The tests were randomly performed in three sessions. In one session, current was applied to the quadriceps muscles of both extremities for 30 minutes and a six-minute walking test was performed immediately afterward. In another session, the same procedure was followed except that the current intensity was set to zero. In the third session, the patients walked for six minutes without application of a current. The distance covered in each session was measured. At the end of each session, the subjects completed a Borg scale questionnaire. [Results] The mean distance traveled in the six-minute walking test and the mean score of the Borg scale questionnaire were significantly different across sessions. The mean systolic and diastolic pressures showed no significant differences across sessions. [Conclusion] The increase in distance traveled during the six-minute walking test and decrease in fatigue after the use of current may be due to a decrease in sympathetic overactivity and an increase in peripheral and muscular microcirculation in these patients.

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  • Aline Marina Alves Fruhauf, Fabiano Politti, Simone Dal Corso, Gláucio ...
    Volume 29 (2017) Issue 12 Pages 2138-2146
    Released: December 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immediate effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) on activity of the tibialis anterior muscle (TA) and static balance of individuals with hemiparesis stemming from stroke. [Subjects and Methods] A randomized, double-blind, crossover, clinical trial conducted with 30 individuals with chronic post-stroke hemiparesis. Median frequency of electrical activity of the TA were determined using electromyography in five contractions concentrics and Static balance (body sway velocity and frequency), both before and immediately after the intervention. The participants were submitted to four 20-minute intervention protocols with 48-hour interval: anodal tDCS + sham FES; sham tDCS + active FES; anodal tDCS + active FES and sham tDCS + sham FES. Anodal tDCS was administered over C3 or C4, the cathode was positioned in the supraorbital region on the contralateral side and FES was administered to the affected TA. [Results] No significant differences among the protocols were found regarding electrical activity of the TA and static balance. [Conclusion] The results demonstrate that tDCS alone or in combination with FES had no immediate effect on electrical activity of the TA and static balance of the 30 individuals analyzed.

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  • Kiyokazu Akasaka, Akihiro Tamura, Aoi Katsuta, Ayako Sagawa, Takahiro ...
    Volume 29 (2017) Issue 12 Pages 2147-2150
    Released: December 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] To determine whether repetitive trampoline or hard surface jumping affects lower extremity alignment on jump landing. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy females participated in this study. All subjects performed a drop vertical jump before and after repeated maximum effort trampoline or hard surface jumping. A three-dimensional motion analysis system and two force plates were used to record lower extremity angles, moments, and vertical ground reaction force during drop vertical jumps. [Results] Knee extensor moment after trampoline jumping was greater than that after hard surface jumping. There were no significant differences between trials in vertical ground reaction force and lower extremity joint angles following each form of exercise. Repeated jumping on a trampoline increased peak vertical ground reaction force, hip extensor, knee extensor moments, and hip adduction angle, while decreasing hip flexion angle during drop vertical jumps. In contrast, repeated jumping on a hard surface increased peak vertical ground reaction force, ankle dorsiflexion angle, and hip extensor moment during drop vertical jumps. [Conclusion] Repeated jumping on the trampoline compared to jumping on a hard surface has different effects on lower limb kinetics and kinematics. Knowledge of these effects may be useful in designing exercise programs for different clinical presentations.

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  • Mitsuaki Ishii, Kohei Okuyama
    Volume 29 (2017) Issue 12 Pages 2151-2156
    Released: December 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients often freeze in actual daily living but seldom in clinical setting. This study aimed to identify the factors contributing to freezing of gait (FOG). [Subjects and Methods] The participants included 28 adults with PD. Principal component analysis was used to investigate the characteristics of 14 common FOG situations adopted from previous studies. Cluster analysis classified the subjects into four groups. Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to compare the PD Questionnaire-39 mobility dimension between the groups. [Results] The major variables of the first principal component in 14 FOG situations were unfamiliar places, unpredictable schedule changes, entering an automatic door, when another person suddenly crossed, and change in the walking surface. These situations were unrelated to the second principal component. Getting on/off a public transport and crowded places were major variables for the second principal component, and related to both the first and second principal components. Although fatigue was the most frequent FOG situation, not all principal components were influenced. The values of the PD Questionnaire-39 revealed significant differences between the groups. [Conclusion] Actual FOG situations may be categorized into (1) task complexity, (2) both task complexity and emotional factors, and (3) fatigue as decreased attentional resources.

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  • Jong-Eun Yang, Tac-Young Lee, Jin-Kyung Kim
    Volume 29 (2017) Issue 12 Pages 2157-2159
    Released: December 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of a VR exercise program on falls and depression in the elderly with mild depression who reside in the local community. [Subjects and Methods] This study was performed by targeting 15 elderly subjects with mild depression who resided in the local community. The targeted subjects voluntarily selected 3 VR exercise programs (each lasting 10 minutes) among 4 activities, and a resting time of 5 minutes was given for an interval after each activity. The VR exercise program was performed for total 12 weeks (36 times), 3 times a week, 45 minutes per session. [Results] After exercise, scores of static balance test (anteroposterior), Falls Efficacy Scale, and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale in the test subjects were improved and depression and internal stress scores were significantly decreased after the intervention. [Conclusion] It can be concluded that the VR exercise program exerts a positive effect not only on the physical factor but also on the mental factor of the elderly subjects with mild depression who reside in the local community. It is expected that based on the VR exercise program, diversified home programs for the elderly should be developed in the future.

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  • Wataru Yamazaki, Yoshitsugu Tanino
    Volume 29 (2017) Issue 12 Pages 2160-2164
    Released: December 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] To investigate lower-extremity joint torque during walking direction changes, focused on gender differences in pelvic width. [Subjects and Methods] Healthy males and females (n=10) changed direction while walking by side-stepping (SS) and crossover stepping (CS), stepping the left leg to the left or right, respectively, over the right leg. Movements were recorded using four infrared cameras, and ground reaction force of each lower extremity measured using two force platforms. Joint torque of each lower extremity was calculated, and each joint peak torque among walking, SS and CS was compared between genders. Moreover, correlation between joint torque showed a gender difference and width of pelvis normalized by width of shoulder (P/S ratio) was examined. [Results] Right external and internal rotation torques during CS were higher in males. Left- and right-ankle plantar flexion torques were also higher in males during CS, while the P/S ratio was larger in females, with a positive correlation between P/S ratio and hip external and internal rotation torques. [Conclusion] No gender differences were found in joint torque during walking and SS, but only during CS. The hip external and internal rotators are necessary for smooth CS in females in terms of P/S ratio.

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Case Study
  • Yun-Yi Park, Yu-Jin Choi
    Volume 29 (2017) Issue 12 Pages 2165-2167
    Released: December 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to present the effects of Interactive metronome (IM) on timing for children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the present study were 2 children diagnosed with ADHD. Pre- and post-intervention tests were completed by the researcher using Long Form Assessment (LFA) test of IM and K-WPPSI-IV. The subjects were provided with IM for 40 minutes at a time, 2 times per week, for a total of 8 weeks. [Results] The timing decreased after IM intervention. The subjects showed improvement in attention span after IM intervention. Working memory index as well as processing speed index were increased after intervention, as shown by the Korean-Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-IV (K-WPPSI-IV). [Conclusion] IM was effective in improving timing, attention, working memory and processing speed in children with ADHD.

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Original Article
  • Yung Keun Park, Je Ho Kim
    Volume 29 (2017) Issue 12 Pages 2168-2171
    Released: December 07, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine prejudices and attitudes of students in the department of physical therapy, in order to suggest basic data for constructing an effective program to develop a positive attitude toward people with disabilities and lower social distance from them. [Subjects and Methods] For this study, students in the department of physical therapy participate in the survey examining prejudices and attitude towards people with disabilities. [Results] First, there were statistically significant differences in the prejudice against people with disabilities among student groups divided by whether they had contact on a frequent basis currently with those who have disabilities. Second, there were statistically significant differences in the prejudice against people with disabilities among student groups divided by whether they had an experience of being harmed by people with disabilities. Third, there was a correlation among prejudices against people with disabilities with each other that is articulated in the eighth domain. Finally, as a result of regression analysis, the students’ attitudes towards people with disabilities were explained appropriately by the prejudices about performance of daily tasks and NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) syndrome. [Conclusion] It is crucial to create an environment where University students in the department of physical therapy can have positive interactions with people with disabilities, to reduce the overall prejudices, and specifically, the prejudices about performance of daily tasks and about NIMBY syndrome.

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Review Article
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