[Purpose] To investigate the effect of pulsed Nd:YAG laser combined with the progressive pressure release technique (PPRT) and exercises in the treatment of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in patients with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). [Participants and Methods] A total of 50 patients with MTrPs in the upper trapezius muscle participated in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups and treated with laser plus PPRT (Laser + PPRT group) or placebo laser and exercises (PL + PPRT group). The laser was applied for eight MTrPs with a 50 J/point. PPRT was applied for 30 seconds for each point. Exercises included strengthening and stretching exercises applied three times per week for four weeks. A visual analogue scale (VAS) and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were used to measure pain and pain threshold, respectively. A cervical range of motion device (CROM) was used to measure the cervical range of motion. [Results] Both treatment groups showed significant improvement in CROM, PPT, and VAS post-treatment with a more significant effect in the Laser + PPRT group compared to the PL + PPRT group. [Conclusion] PPRT and exercises alone or that in combination with laser therapy were effective in the treatment of active MTrPs in patients with MPS.
[Purpose] Three complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies: “Judo therapy”, “acupuncture and moxibustion”, and “Japanese traditional massage and finger pressure” have been partially covered by the national health insurance in Japan. The lifetime prevalence of the use of these CAM therapies is not well known. The aim of the present study was to report the prevalence of the lifetime use of these CAM therapies. [Participants and Methods] We conducted a mailed self-administered questionnaire survey among community-dwelling older people in Japan in 2015. They were asked whether they had undergone any treatments with the 3 CAM therapies. The answers obtained were classified into 3 categories: current, ever, or never. We defined lifetime prevalence as the proportion of individuals who are currently using or have ever used any of these 3 therapies in the population. [Results] Overall, we approached 1051 individuals and 983 agreed to participate. Lifetime prevalence of Judo therapy, acupuncture and moxibustion, and Japanese traditional massage and finger pressure use was 28.0%, 17.8% and 15.8%, respectively, among males, and 44.5%, 18.4%, and 27.3%, respectively, among females. [Conclusion] These results showed that not only Western medicine but also CAM therapies are common among older people in Japan.
[Purpose] Most exercise therapy procedures induce hemodynamic changes and could be a cardiovascular risk. This pilot study investigated factors that induce an exaggerated increase in blood pressure during exercise therapy. [Participants and Methods] We measured the blood pressure and pulse rate before and after exercise therapy for ambulation on days 1, 2, and 7 of the exercise therapy in patients (n=23; age, 69 ± 11 years) who were hospitalized for a stroke or an orthopedic surgery. [Results] Each participant’s blood pressure and pulse rate were significantly increased after the exercise therapy. Regression analysis demonstrated that the increase in systolic blood pressure was independently predicted by body weight and pulse rate before the exercise therapy. In the logistic regression analysis, age and body weight were independent predictors of the exaggerated increase in systolic blood pressure (fourth quartile). [Conclusion] A significant increase in blood pressure was induced by exercise therapy. There was a correlation between systolic blood pressure increase and pulse rate before the exercise therapy. Old age or increased body weight predicts exaggerated increase in blood pressure during exercise therapy.
[Purpose] Cervical vertigo as a common complaint is associated with some musculoskeletal disorders. However, to date, ultrasonographical parameters of cervical muscles in patients with cervical vertigo have not been investigated. This study was conducted to investigate size of cervical muscles in patients with cervical vertigo compared to healthy controls. [Participants and Methods] Thicknesses of cervical flexor and extensor muscles were evaluated through ultrasonography and results were compared between the patients and healthy controls by Independent Samples t-test or Mann-Whitney U nonparametric test. [Results] Results showed that, thickness of Longus Colli muscle was significantly different between the patients and healthy controls. [Conclusion] According to findings of the study, size of Longus Colli muscle is likely to be associated with etiology of cervical vertigo.
[Purpose] Previous studies have demonstrated a link between core body temperature and interleukin-6 production. Recent studies have reported that 20 minutes of head-out immersion in hot water (42°C) increased serum interleukin-6 levels in young males. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of head-out immersion in hot water (42°C) on serum interleukin-6 levels in seven elderly (66–75 years old) and eight young males (21–32 years old). [Participants and Methods] Venous blood samples were drawn at rest, immediately after head-out immersion in hot water (42°C), after 1 hour, and after 2 hours. Levels of serum interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; blood cell counts; and core temperature were measured. [Results] It was found that 20 minutes of head-out immersion in hot water (42°C) increased the core temperature in both the elderly and young participants; however, the rise in core temperature was more attenuated in elderly participants. Serum interleukin-6 levels were significantly higher in young participants 1 hour after the head-out immersion in hot water (42°C); however, serum interleukin-6 levels did not change in elderly participants. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels remained constant throughout the study the elderly and young participants. [Conclusion] The current study demonstrated that head-out immersion in hot water (42°C) more attenuated core temperature and interleukin-6 levels in elderly participants than in young participants. We assert that these differences are likely to be related to age-related changes in core temperature regulation and muscle fibers.
[Purpose] Our study aimed to verify the reliability and validity of the translated Mongolian version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview (ZBI). [Participants and Methods] We obtained the basic information of patients and their caregivers when they were hospitalized (Study 1). Subsequently, after the hospital discharged the patients, the caregivers answered the ZBI by telephone during the 4th and 5th weeks (Studies 2 and 3, respectively). To evaluate reliability, we calculated the correlation coefficient, compared the total scores of the ZBI obtained in Studies 2 and 3, and calculated Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. To evaluate validity, we calculated the correlation coefficient of the score of item 22 and the sum of the scores of items 1–21. [Results] The correlation coefficient for reliability was high, and the difference between the two studies was insignificant. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.92. The correlation coefficient was high for validity as well. [Conclusion] The Mongolian version of the ZBI has high reliability and validity.
[Purpose] Voluntary cough can be assessed by recording flow waves. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of the measurements of respiratory flow waveforms, using equipment that recorded flow waves during cough. [Participants and Methods] Twenty healthy participants were recruited for this study. They underwent spirometry on them and, subsequently, their flow waves during single and consecutive voluntary cough tasks in the sitting position were recorded. The intra-class correlation coefficient was used to assess the intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities for the voluntary cough data. [Results] The intra-class correlation coefficients were 0.6 to 0.8 for ‘intra-rater reliability’ and higher than 0.9 for ‘inter-rater reliability’, for single and consecutive cough tasks. The first assessment of cough peak flow was significantly higher than the second, during consecutive cough tasks. Similarly, the first assessment of cough volume acceleration was significantly higher than the second. [Conclusion] Our results demonstrated high intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities for single and consecutive cough tasks. Following additional procedures and valuations, including the storage of data and standard range decisions, this method of cough assessment will be applied to patients with reduced cough function.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between physical therapy clinical educators’ motivations and negative personal factors. [Participants and Methods] The authors sent a questionnaire on clinical education to 790 physical therapists working in hospitals across Japan, and received 345 valid responses. The study defined motivated and unmotivated clinical educators based on their answers to the “interests” and “enjoyment” aspects of clinical education. It also calculated the negative response rate out of 10 questions and odds ratio based on motivated clinical educators. [Results] The motivated group comprised 287 clinical educators (years of clinical experience: 8.1 ± 6.3) and the unmotivated group 58 (years of clinical experience: 7.0 ± 5.2). There was no statistically significant difference in years of clinical experience between the two groups. Two questions—“Is student guidance necessary for growth as a therapist (self-improvement)?” and “Do you want to learn about instructional methods?”—showed very high odds ratios. [Conclusion] This study reveals negative personal factors for the clinical educators who lack the will to educate students, such as preparation for clinical education, self-improvement, and cooperation with class instructors. Longitudinal research on motivated and unmotivated clinical educators will help identify these negative factors to improve their motivation.
[Purpose] The main objective of this study was to assess the reliability of the method for testing the attention distribution ability of the elderly using mental arithmetic response time. [Participants and Methods] The participants included in the study were 30 healthy elderly people (over 65 years old), 11 males and 19 females, eight of whom had experienced falls in the past year.In the quiet standing position and the free walking state, we recorded the mental calculation response time of the participants by calculating the two-digit plus or minus one-digit values within 100. The test of the two states were tested in 24 hour intervals. [Results] In the quiet standing and free walking state, the correlation coefficient of the mental arithmetic response time group of the elderly was excellent. The intra-group correlation coefficient of mental arithmetic response time of more than three tests under free walking was greater than 0.9. [Conclusion] We found that the mental arithmetic response time can be used to objectively evaluate the ability of attention distribution in the elderly.
[Purpose] To examine the influence of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation, ankle muscle activities, and coactivation on postural steadiness during dual-tasks. [Participants and Methods] A total of 14 participants (8 males, 6 females) were included. The participants stood straight on the force plate, and performed 3 different tasks: 1) a quiet standing (single-task), 2) a repetition of a number (dual-task 1: DT1), and 3) a serial subtraction (dual-task 2: DT2). We divided the participants into 2 groups (S and L group) according to whether their center of pressure paths in the dual-tasks were shorter or longer than those in the single-task. The EMG activity of the gastrocnemius lateralis and tibialis anterior were measured; the oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) level in the DLPFC were measured using fNIRS. [Results] The results revealed that oxy-Hb in the left DLPFC increased significantly in all participants during DT2 compared to a single-task. Further, we found that the S group exhibited a higher rate of tibialis anterior activity and ankle muscle coactivation than the L group during DT2. [Conclusion] We concluded that the increase of the DLPFC activation varied with the dual-tasks; moreover, younger individuals modulate their standing posture using different strategies for posture steadiness during posture-calculating task.
[Purpose] The aim of this case study is to reconsider the method for preventing orthostatic hypotension in multiple system atrophy. [Participant and Methods] The case was that of a 70-year-old female with multiple system atrophy who experienced frequent falls and orthostatic hypotension. An orthostatic test was performed, and the effect of cold oral stimulation before standing was compared with no stimulation. Outcome measures were blood pressure, heart rate variability and autonomic variables. [Results] In the control test, blood pressure decreased from 150/72 mmHg in the supine position to 98/58 mmHg in the standing position. Heart rate increased from 71 bpm to 82 bpm, high frequency declined from 16.48 msec2 to 14.07 msec2, and low/high frequency increased from 2.56 to 5.13. Cold stimulation in the standing position induced changes in blood pressure from 168/82 mmHg to 104/72 mmHg, heart rate from 73 bpm to 83 bpm, high frequency from 61.29 msec2 to 24.56 msec2, and low/high frequency from 1.45 to 6.33 msec2. [Conclusion] Standing after cold stimulation affected autonomic variables, but did not affect the heart rate or blood pressure, possibly because of damaged peripheral blood vessels. Further research is required to demonstrate the effect of cold stimulation on orthostatic hypotension.
[Purpose] The efficacy of exercise therapy in temporomandibular disorders has been recognized. Here, we present our experience with exercise therapy. [Participant and Methods] A 25-year-old female with a sudden onset of mouth opening limitation in October 2018 was admitted to our hospital in November 2018. Based on our initial findings, the patient was diagnosed with left disc derangement of the temporomandibular joint without reduction. A definitive diagnosis was established following magnetic resonance imaging in December 2018. Subsequently, range-of-motion exercises for the temporomandibular joint as passive movements and self-traction therapy as active movements were conducted. Magnetic resonance imaging was repeated 4 months after the first treatment. [Results] The temporomandibular joint disc remained in anterior dislocation during mouth opening and closing. The mouth opening joint motion was significantly improved compared to the pre-therapy range. The pain-related visual analog scale score also significantly improved. [Conclusion] The range of motion of the temporomandibular joint was improved by range-of-motion exercises for the temporomandibular joint, and was maintained and managed using self-traction therapy. Improvement of the range of motion was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging.