The purposes of this study were (1) to see the change of total work during isokinetic exercise and (2) to suggest more advanced methods of measuring muscular endurance through considering not only the number of repetitions, but also exercise duration. The subjects were 54 healthy students who performed continuous maximal isokinetic knee flexion and extension until their total work per time reached 50% of their maximal total work. Total work sums, exercise duration in seconds, and the number of repetitions were compared with reference to subject gender, angular velocity, and muscle group. The relationships between total work sum, duration and number of repetitions, and thigh circumference plus leg length were computed. The results showed the total work sums differed greatly from muscle group to muscle group and with different angular velocities. The duration in seconds and the number of repetitions differed only at higher angular velocity. These results suggest that measures of endurance should be included along with measures of total work when isokinetic studies are done. When isokinetic exercise is performed, measures of endurance in seconds are more accurate at an angular velocity of 60 degrees per second and numbers of repetitions are more accurate at an angular velocity of 180 degrees per second.
This study examined the relationship between falls and knee extension strength in the eldely. Twenty-seven elderly persons who resided at the same home for aged were asked about their individual histories of falling during the previous year, including the location where the fall had occured, such as near the bed, in the toilet, or in the corridor. The isometric maximal knee extension strength of the subjects was determined, measured by a hand-held dynamometer in the knee flexed at 90 degrees, as a percentage of their weight. Calculations were obtained on the dominant side and non-dominant side, and the sum of both sides was also noted. The subjects were then divided into two groups: no-fall group (n=18), and fall group (n=9). The fall group was further divided into the fall outside the home group (n=2) and the fall in the home group (n=7). The knee extension strength was compared by two-sample t-test between the no-fall and the fall outside the home group, and between the no-fall and the fall in the home group. In addition, the range of knee extension strength in the fall in the home group was examined by scattergraph, in which the knee extension strength of all subjects were plotted. The two-sample t-test revealed significant differences in knee extension strength between the no-fall group and the fall in the home group (p<0.05). The scattergraph indicated that the knee extension strength of the subjects who had a fall in the home was at a range less than approximately 35% of their weight. These results suggested that poor knee extension strength was closely related to falls in the home, and it is thus desirable that elderly maintain their knee extension strength above approximately 35% of their weight in each side to prevent falls in the home.
We examined the test-retest reliability of computer-based video motion analysis and electromyographic (EMG) analysis of the sit-to-stand movement in 11 healthy subjects. The peak joint angles, joint angular velocities, and EMG activities were measured in two trials with five different chair heights. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to determine the reliability of the data. The peak joint angles of trunk, hip, knee and ankle statistically increased with decreasing chair height. The ICC values of all joint angles were high or moderate. The peak angular velocities of hip and knee extension and ankle dorsi/plantarflexion increased with decreasing chair height. The ICC values of angular velocities were lower than the joint angles. The peak EMG activities of rectus femoris and tibialis anterior increased with decreasing chair height. The ICC of EMG activities values were high. We conclude that the results of this study are reliable, except for those of the joint angular velocities. The reliability of joint angular velocities may be influenced by variability of movement speed.
Using exercise echocardiography (M-mode method) with a supine-position leg ergometer, we examined cardiovascular responses and the contractile wall movement and pumping function of the left ventricle in healthy male subjects. Under a moderate exercise load equivalent to the optimum exercise intensity, it is necessary to fully understand changes in PRP and systolic blood pressure to accurately estimate myocardial oxygen demand. Decreases in the telediastolic and telesystolic volumes of the left ventricle, especially a marked decrease in the telesystolic volume, led to differences between the two volumes, resulting in an increased EF. There was a high correlation between changes in PRP and EF during exercise. Although exercise echocardiography requires complex measurement techniques, it is very useful in physiotherapy for risk control in cardiac rehabilitation.
This study describes and analyzes a group of progressive muscular dystrophy (PMD) patients in terms of demographic characteristics, functional status, and subjective quality of life. In addition, the subjective quality of life responses were compared with those of a control group who answered the same questionnaires. Thirty five patients and 101 healthy young people participated as subjects in this study. Three questionnaire scales were used to evaluate self-esteem (SE), the life satisfaction index (LSI), and the holistic health index (HHI). In this study Cronbach’s α coefficient for each scale was 0.77, 0.60, 0.73 for PMD patients, and 0.84, 0.63, 0.71 for controls. The majority of the PMD patients were at a severe disability level with regard to the functional status of their limbs. Significant differences in SE, LSI, and HHI were not discerned between PMD patients and controls. There were positive and significant correlations among the scores of the three questionnaires in the control group (coefficients ranging from 0.48-0.65, p<0.0001). However, the LSI score of PMD patients correlated negatively and significantly with both the SE score (r=-0.63, p<0.0001) and the HHI score (r=-0.48, p<0.01). The age of the PMD patients correlated negatively and significantly with the SE score (r=-0.40, p<0.05), but positively with the LSI score (r=0.42, p<0.05). There were significant differences in the SE score (p<0.05) and LSI score(p<0.005) which were dependent on the presence of the patient’s mother. Functional abilities did not have a significant impact on the subjective quality of life. These results suggest that the PMD patients had accepted the unavoidable progression of functional disability, and were leading substantive lives according to their abilities. It is postulated that other factors are associated with the subjective quality of life, and accordingly, the need for a multidimentional description of the PMD patient’s subjective quality of life is indispensable. In addition, when considerating therapeutic intervention it is necessary in order to promote the PMD patient’s independence.