[Purpose] This study examined the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy versus ultrasound therapy, combined with the mobilization and therapeutic exercise in both groups, in participants with diabetic frozen shoulder. [Participants and Methods] Twenty participants with diabetic frozen shoulder were divided into an experimental group who received extracorporeal shock wave therapy, mobilization and exercises (n=10, Mean: 43.70) and the control group who received ultrasound, mobilization and exercises (n=10 Mean: 45.50). The clinical outcomes, i.e., a) pain b) active range of motions of the shoulder, c) disability scores by Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scale and d) global rating of change was measured weekly for four weeks. [Results] Significant improvements in pain, all active range of motions and disability scores were observed at the end of the 4th week in both groups. Additionally, the experimental group benefitted significant pain reduction (median difference: 7 in experimental versus 6 in control group), reduced number of therapy sessions and thus the costs of treatment compared to the control group. [Conclusion] Extracorporeal shock wave therapy significantly reduced pain in people with diabetic frozen shoulder with a reduction of treatment cost compared to the control group.
[Purpose] To investigate the differences in foot kinetics during gait initiation between young and elderly participants using a modified multi-segment foot model. [Participants and Methods] Twelve young (23.3 ± 2.4 years) and 12 elderly participants (73.3 ± 3.9 years) were included in this study. Gait initiation was measured using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. We calculated the kinetic and kinematic values using our modified multi-segment foot model and compared those values with the values calculated using Bruening et al.’s multi-segment foot model. Modified gait initiation values were also compared between the elderly and young participants. [Results] Our modified multi-segment foot model, created using the Software for Interactive Musculoskeletal Modeling, showed similar values to those reported by Bruening et al. When we compared gait initiation between the elderly participants and their younger counterparts, the elderly exhibited lower torque and power values in the ankle, tarsometatarsal, and metatarsophalangeal joints. Additionally, the elderly exhibited a lower torque ratio in the distal joint than in the proximal joint (torque ratio: ankle joint >tarsometatarsal joint >metatarsophalangeal joint). [Conclusion] The elderly participants had less speed, stride, foot joint movement, moment, and power than the young participants. Moreover, the ratio of joint moment was smaller in the elderly participants. In elderly patients whose walking speed has decreased, consideration of the kinetics of the foot is important when deciding physiotherapy intervention.
[Purpose] The Gait Judge System measures the plantar flexion resistive torque acting on the angle of the ankle joint, as well as the ankle joint itself, of the ankle-foot orthosis using a 1,000 Hz sampling frequency. This pilot study aimed to determine the characteristics of plantar flexion resistive torque acting on the double Klenzak ankle joint of the ankle-foot orthoses worn by healthy individuals. [Participants and Methods] Participants were eight healthy young adults (3 male, 5 female; mean age, 26.8 years old; mean height, 165 cm.; mean body weight, 56.3 kg). Plantar flexion resistive torques and angles of the ankle joint in gait cycles were measured with the Gait Judge System. Speed of gait was calculated using a ruler attached on the floor and the Gait Judge System video. We classified waveforms according to the existence of second peaks in the gait cycle. The correlations between parameters related to the plantar flexion resistive torque and the speed of gait were evaluated using Pearson’s simple correlation analysis. [Results] The plantar flexion resistive torque showed two peaks: the first peak was at the loading response, measured at 17.4 Nm, and the second peak was at the pre-swing phase, measured at 10.9 Nm. However, the second peak was absent in three of the participants. The normalized second peak and the second peak/first peak ratio had a strong, positive correlation with the speed of gait. [Conclusion] The Gait Judge System revealed typical waveforms according to the parameters set in this study.
[Purpose] This study was aimed to investigate the effects of Ergon® IASTM applications on the upper or lower part of the Superficial Back Line (SBL) on the hamstring’s flexibility. [Participants and Methods] Sixty University students (age=24.4 ± 4.39; height=176.78 ± 8.31 cm; weight=75.16 ± 11.21 kg) were randomly divided into three sub-groups and received a single 15-minute treatment with Ergon® Technique in a) the upper and b) the lower part of SBL or c) served as control. The participants received one treatment per week for four weeks with a simultaneous pre-and post-therapy assessment of their hamstrings flexibility using the passive Straight Leg Raising (SLR). [Results] Both experimental groups improved SLR performance from pre to post during the four weeks from 4.4% to 9.2% in the trunk group and from 4.9% to 8.0% in the lower body group. These differences were significantly greater from the CTRL group. No differences were observed between the two experimental groups. [Conclusion] In conclusion, application of Ergon Technique of either the upper or lower part of the SBL may lead to a significant increase in the hamstring flexibility irrespective of the site of application.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the behavior of creatine kinase before and after the execution of a pre-activation protocol with intra-set variable resistance in order to generate post-activation potentiation in female athletes. [Participants and Methods] Six sprint women were part of the study. The study had a quasi-experimental intra-participant design. The experimental condition included a pre-activation with intra-set variable resistance + 1 minute rest + 30-m sprint × 3. The variables were metabolic creatine kinase, total creatine kinase, and 30-m sprints. [Results] Both the experimental condition and the control condition showed an increase in creatine kinase and total creatine kinase 24 hours post-effort. Only the experimental condition showed improvement in 30-m sprints after the pre-activation with intra-set variable resistance. [Conclusion] All those sessions oriented to increasing strength levels with a pre-activation protocol through intra-set variable resistance must consider rests longer than 24 hours between sessions in order not to increase creatine kinase in female athletes significantly.
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the causes of post-surgical infective and non-infective complications and to examine the possibility of physical therapy for preventing postoperative complications in gastrointestinal cancer patients. [Participants and Methods] The study participants were 119 perioperative gastrointestinal cancer patients [69 males and 50 females, aged 62.2 ± 11.2 years (mean ± standard deviation)] classified into three groups according to whether they had infective complications, non-infective complications, or the absence of complications. Data on onset factors for complications, basic information, surgical information, biochemical data, respiratory function, physical function, physique, and body composition were collected from a previous study. [Results] In the group with onset factors of infective complications, blood loss, the C-reactive protein level on the third postoperative day, and the forced expiratory volume % in 1 second were found to be significant explanatory variables. In the group with onset factors of non-infective complications, surgical time was detected as a significant explanatory variable. [Conclusion] In gastrointestinal cancer patients, surgical information affected the onset of infective and non-infective complications. However, only infective complications had the onset factors of postoperative immune response and preoperative respiratory function. Preoperative physical therapy may be an option for the prevention of postoperative complications in gastrointestinal cancer patients.
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of differences in the goals recognized by the client and the occupational therapist on patient outcome. [Participants and Methods] A retrospective case-control study was conducted to compare rehabilitation outcomes of cases wherein the occupational therapy goals were matched/unmatched (control) with those of the patients in seven subacute rehabilitation wards in Japan. The outcomes were Functional Independence Measure, number of days of hospitalization, occupational therapy, and total medical cost. [Results] The motor Functional Independence Measure scores in the matched-goal group were significantly higher than those of the unmatched-goal group, and the home discharge rate showed a tendency to increase. It was speculated whether the client had received an explanation about the goal. [Conclusion] Rehabilitation outcome may vary depending on whether occupational therapy goals are matched.
[Purpose] Antagonistic stretching is an important therapeutic program in rehabilitation. However, if pain occurs during stretching, other methods should be considered. This study aimed to investigate whether antagonistic muscle contraction exercises alone had an effect in expanding the joint range of motion. [Participants and Methods] Participants included 50 healthy males and females (aged 21.0 ± 3.1 years) who were each randomly assigned to one of four groups that performed either active, resistance, phasic, or isometric exercises or a control group that performed no exercise. Each exercise group performed five sets of 30-second ankle dorsiflexion exercises. Active and passive ranges of motion of ankle dorsiflexion were measured using a goniometer, with the participants in the knee extension and flexion positions. [Results] Ankle joint range of motion was increased in the knee extension position in the isometric exercise group. There were no other differences observed in any of the groups. [Conclusion] Our results indicated that isometric exercises had an immediate effect on increasing ankle joint range of motion. This is presumably attributed to the effects of Golgi tendon organ inhibition (Ib inhibition) or stretch tolerance of the gastrocnemius muscle.
[Purpose] Studies have demonstrated a relationship between plantar pressure distribution and proximal fifth metatarsal fracture. We aimed to investigate the plantar pressure patterns of soccer players with or without a history of proximal fifth metatarsal fracture. [Participants and Methods] Fifty-one male soccer players (31 professional, 20 high-school) participated in this study (mean age, weight, and height ± SD: 21.1 ± 4.7 years, 68.8 ± 5.8 kg, and 175.4 ± 5.9 cm, respectively). Seven of them had a history of proximal fifth metatarsal fracture before this study (the fracture group) and 44 had no history of fracture (the control group). A Win-Pod (Medicapteurs) platform was used to measure foot pressure forces. The center of plantar pressure was measured during double and single-limb stances for 25 seconds. Fifth metatarsal pressure and the center of plantar pressure angle was calculated from the walking footprint. The calculated data were compared between the fracture group and the control group. [Results] Comparisons between the fracture and control groups in terms of morphology and the center of plantar pressure length showed no significant differences. However, the fifth metatarsal pressure and the center of plantar pressure angle were significantly higher in the fracture group. [Conclusion] The results of this study revealed that players with excessive loading in the lateral areas of the foot while walking have a risk of developing proximal fifth metatarsal fracture.
[Purpose] This study aimed to determine the coping behaviors of elderly Japanese community-dwelling persons toward their skeletal muscle injuries and disorders. [Participants and Methods] A mail-in, self-administered questionnaire survey was administered to 1,084 community-dwelling adults aged 70 years and older. Information was obtained regarding their coping behaviors when dealing with bone fractures, dislocations, sprains, bruising, stiff shoulders, low back pain, acute muscle/joint pain, chronic muscle/joint pain, and daily fatigue. [Results] Visits to hospitals or general clinics were the most popular coping behavior for bone fractures, dislocations, sprains, bruising, low back pain, acute muscle/joint pain, and chronic muscle/joint pain; visits to a Judo therapist’s office were the second most popular coping behavior for these conditions. Acupuncture, as well as chiropractic and massage clinics, were less frequently visited. For stiff shoulders and daily fatigue, many participants did not visit any medical facility. [Conclusion] Among the elderly, visits to hospitals or general clinics were the most used coping behavior for many types of skeletal muscle injuries and disorders. Visits to a Judo therapist’s office were the second most used coping behavior. Visits to acupuncture, chiropractic, and massage clinics were less frequent. With these data, therapists could improve their care skills upon consideration of the coping preferences among community-dwelling elderly persons.
[Purpose] This study aimed to verify the relationship between foot range of motion and the amount of physical activity in diabetic patients. [Participants and Methods] There were twenty-eight male patients with diabetes (age ranged from 50 to 69 years old) and 10 healthy, non-diabetic male individuals within the same age range in the diabetes group and control group, respectively. The passive ranges of motion of the following joints were measured in the right foot of each participant: the ankle joint, the first metatarsophalangeal joint, and the subtalar joint. The amount of daily physical activity was estimated using the short Japanese version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. [Results] The mean range of motion of the ankle joints in the diabetic and control groups was 55.4 ± 8.4° and 69.1 ± 9.2°, respectively, whereas the mean range of motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joints in the diabetic and control groups was 82.9 ± 9.6° and 96.3 ± 8.9°, respectively. The diabetic group showed a significantly higher restriction in joint range of motion than did the control group. The amount of physical activity was a contributing factor toward the ankle range of motion according to multiple regression analysis. [Conclusion] We determined that the range of motion in the ankle joints of diabetic patients was affected by their level of physical activity.
[Purpose] Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs. To date, the appropriate frequency and intensity of physical therapy for patients with HSP are not well-known. We created an original rehabilitation program for a patient with a complicated form of HSP, wherein the program required low-frequency involvement to adapt to the long-term insurance system in Japan. We wanted to find out whether this program could maintain the physical functions and activities of daily living (ADL) of the patient. [Participant and Methods] A 41-year-old male diagnosed with a complicated form of HSP with decreased visual acuity and ataxia of the trunk and upper limb underwent a specific rehabilitation program that included a squatting exercise, a kneeling position exercise, and a motion exercise of taking a bath. This intervention program lasted for 20 minutes per session, with a frequency of two days per week. The patient was in the program for 12 weeks. [Results] All outcome measures, including muscle strength (grip force and quadriceps) and Barthel index, remained unchanged at the end of the intervention program. [Conclusion] The original intervention program used in this study, which had a low frequency of exercise, was effective in preventing further regression of the lower limb function of the patient with a complicated form of HSP, and in preventing a decrease in the ability of the patient to perform ADL.
[Purpose] To study the brain function during a dual task (cycling exercise and cognitive training) via functional near-infrared spectroscopy in young males. [Participants and Methods] Twenty Japanese young male participants were divided into intervention and control groups by simple randomization (n=10 per group). In the intervention group, participants were given a cognitive program training and cycling exercise (dual task). The control group was given the cognitive program training (single task) only. The cognitive program training consisted of a warm up, followed by 2 minutes of rock-paper-scissors, 2 minutes of numeric memory, 2 minutes of color matching, 2 minutes of calculations, and a cool down. Brain function tests were performed individually throughout the programs by functional near-infrared spectroscopy. [Results] The oxyhemoglobin levels significantly increased in the frontal lobe of the intervention and control groups after program completion compared to before. And the oxyhemoglobin levels of the intervention group also significantly increased more than control group in the prefrontal cortex and motor area. [Conclusion] This program used by Cognibike was also effective for improving hemoglobin oxygen levels at the frontal lobe in young males.
[Purpose] This study analyzed the relationship between fitness and executive functions in adolescents and its influence on academic achievement. [Participants and Methods] The design was cross-sectional. The sample included 713 adolescents (14.2 ± 1.5 years old). Physical fitness was evaluated using flexibility test, strength test, balance test and aerobic test. Executive function was evaluated with the tests (Stroop, Symbol digit, Trail making, Wechsler memory, and MESSY scale). Academic performance was evaluated through the school records. A partial correlational analysis of physical fitness and executive functions with respect to academic achievement was carried out. A multivariate linear regression was performed to identify the physical component model that best defined each of the executive functions. [Results] The analysis showed how academic achievement is significantly influenced, from a physical point of view, by resistance strength (r=0.21), aerobic endurance (r=0.188), and flexibility (r=0.17), whereas from a cognitive point of view it is significantly influenced by inhibition/interference (r=0.25), working memory (r=0.10) and processing speed (r=0.18). [Conclusion] The results indicate that the physical fitness and executive function are closely related and both have a significant influence on academic achievement.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify cognitive impairments in patients with a recent stroke using Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 (SIS). [Participants and Methods] A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate 50 medical records in patients with a recent stroke who have completed a stroke rehabilitation programme. All data were evaluated at St. Finbarr’s Hospital in Cork, Ireland. [Results] A total of 41 records met the inclusion criteria, of which 53.7% were male. Regarding the risk factors, most patients complained of hypertension (85.4%), with most being diagnosed with embolic stroke (56.1%). The SIS identified numerous issues in stroke patients, such as persistent problems with memory (36.6%), concentration (29.3%), and solving everyday problems (43.9%). In addition, some patients’ responses were negative regarding their emotion such as feeling sad (51.2%), not enjoying things as much as ever (39%), feeling life is not worth living (85.4%) and not smiling or laughing at least once a day (80.5%). [Conclusion] The inclusion of the SIS in the stroke review clinic identified cognitive deficits that may not have otherwise been detected. By using SIS in a systematic and standardised way, deficits can be identified, and appropriate rehabilitation can be provided.
[Purpose] A sufficient flexion angle of the knee joint after knee surgery leads to higher quality of their life; therefore, here we investigated the relationship between the dynamics of the infrapatellar fat pad and seiza-style sitting via ultrasonography. [Participants and Methods] Twenty-eight patients were enrolled 3 months post-operatively after anterior cruciate reconstruction. They were divided into a “possible” group and “impossible” group, according to whether they could sit in the seiza style. The thickness of the superficial part of the infrapatellar fat pad was measured at 10° and 90° knee flexion on reconstructed knees in the sitting position via ultrasound evaluation. Images were taken to capture the patella apex and tibial tuberosity. The thickness of the superficial part of the infrapatellar fat pad was measured, and the thickness change ratio was calculated. The characteristics of each group were compared. [Results] The superficial part of the infrapatellar fat pad was significantly thinner in the possible group at a 10° knee flexion. The thickness change ratio of the infrapatellar fat pad was significantly greater in the possible group. [Conclusion] The thickness of the infrapatellar fat pad at a 10° knee flexion and the thickness change ratio of the infrapatellar fat pad could affect the possibility of sitting in the seiza style.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in postural stability control while leaning forward and backward between healthy elderly participants and elderly participants with cognitive impairment. [Participants and Methods] Postural stability was analyzed in 36 participants. According to the Mini-Mental State Examination results, participants were divided into the cognitive impairment group and the control group. A force plate was used to register the center of pressure in the sagittal and frontal plane, during two trials of maximum forward and backward body leaning. [Results] Significant differences were shown in both forward and backward leaning between the control and cognitive impairment groups. [Conclusion] The control of stability in the sagittal plane during maximum forward and backward lean of the body in cognitively impaired patients is similar to the results obtained by their healthy peers. However, individuals with cognitive impairment demonstrated larger lateral oscillations, which may be the reason for postural instability in this group, leading to an increased occurrence of falls.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify the validity and reliability of the Motor Accuracy (MAc-R) test of the Sensory Integration and Praxis Test (SIPT) in Turkey. [Participants and Methods] The study sample group consisted of 100 children at a primary school registered to the Hatay Provincial Directorate of National Education. The children’s ages ranged between 6 and 8 years, 11 months. The MAc-R test was implemented on the children through test-retest with a 2-week interval and whether or not the difference between these results was statistically significant was investigated. In addition, the Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception Eye-Hand Coordination Test was implemented once on each child and its relationship with the MAc-R test was examined. [Results] It was concluded that the MAc-R test is valid (r=−0.531) and reliable (r=0.834) in Turkish schoolchildren aged between 6 and 8 years, 11 months. [Conclusion] As a result, it is believed that identifying the validity and reliability of the MAc-R test in Turkey will have an important place in evaluating children’s sensory integration in physiotherapy and rehabilitation practices.
[Purpose] To establish the test-retest reliability of an iPhone application and determine the immediate effect of motor control exercise (MCE) on lumbar position sense. [Participants and Methods] This study used a two-arm, randomized controlled trial design with a blinded assessor. Sixty healthy participants were randomized into the exercise or control group. The exercise group underwent 30-min MCE, whereas the control group rested for 15 min. Lumbar motion measured by two iPhones with goniometer application was used to determine the test-retest reliability. Absolute repositioning errors (pre- and post-test) from the control and exercise groups were used to determine the immediate effect of MCE on lumbar position sense. [Results] The test-retest reliability was 0.67–0.95. A significant interaction effect was found for Angle*Time, main effect of Angle, and main effect of Time. Post-hoc comparison showed a significant improvement in position sense at 45° and 60° in the exercise group. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that a mobile phone application has the ability to detect changes in lumbar position sense between sessions that exceed measurement error following MCE. One session of specific MCE can improve lumbar position sense at high lumbar flexion.
[Purpose] The purpose of this review is to compare the effect of McKenzie and stabilization exercises in reducing pain and disability in individuals with chronic nonspecific low back pain. [Methods] A systematic literature review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were performed using 6 databases. The quality of reviewed articles were assessed by the risk of bias using the Cochrane collaboration’s tool. [Results] A total of 829 articles were found from the databases, of which 10 were finally selected to be included in this review. The overall risk of bias assessment indicated that the risk of bias was low in one study and high in the other nine studies. One study reported reduced pain and two studies reported reduced functional disability in the McKenzie exercise group compared to other exercises. Two studies reported reduced pain and three studies reported reduced functional disability in the stabilization exercise group compared to other exercises. In two studies, the stabilization exercise group was as effective as McKenzie exercise group in reducing pain and functional disability in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. [Conclusion] Only two studies compared stabilization and McKenzie exercises in the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain. Therefore, insufficient evidence is available to draw any conclusive comparison on the effects of McKenzie and stabilization exercises in chronic nonspecific low back pain. However, both McKenzie and stabilization exercises was better than conventional exercise programs in reducing functional disability in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain.
[Purpose] This study aims to evaluate the synergistic effects of laser therapy and vacuum therapy in the rehabilitation of some disorders of the osteomuscular articular system (shoulder bursitis, low back pain, hip dysfunction after long-term impact of femoral endoprosthesis). [Participants and Methods] Three case reports were described. A vacuum laser system was used, which is a device that contains 1 handpiece with 3 red lasers (660 nm) and 3 infrared lasers (808 nm). This device contains 6 laser beams that are arranged around the vacuum chamber bore which generate negative pressure. Two weekly sessions were held, totalling 10 treatment sessions. Active goniometry was performed to assess range of motion (ROM) of the shoulder, lumbar spine and hip, and visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to evaluate pain in the pre and posttreatment period. [Results] There was a pain reduction and an increase in ROM in the different clinical cases. [Conclusion] Potentiating laser therapy through suctioning during the rehabilitation process leads to pain relief and increased functionality.