[Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of the Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) and the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) for community residents with hemiplegic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] The FES and the ABC data were collected for a sample of 99 community-dwelling hemiplegic stroke patients in Korea. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the cut-off values, and the area under the curve (AUC) was used to assess the overall accuracy of each balance test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to identify the predictors of falling. [Results] The cut-off value was 63.75 in the ABC and 66.50 in the FES. The sensitivity and specificity of the ABC was 41.3% and 92.0%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the FES was 69.8% and 63.9%, respectively. The AUC was 0.691 for the ABC and 0.678 for the FES. The ABC explained 28.0% of the variance in the experience of falls. [Conclusion] The ABC has the ability to determine non-fallers, and it was a good explanatory factor of experience of falls.
[Purpose] The objective of this research was to examine the impact of cognitive load on the flexion relaxation phenomenon (FRP) during trunk flexion and return from flexion task. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy subjects (18 males, 4 females) participated in the study. Each participant was exposed to 3 experimental conditions: no cognitive task, easy cognitive task and difficult cognitive task. Surface electromyography was used to measure lumbar erector spinae muscles activity level. Flexion relaxation ratio (FRR) was compared in order to assess the differences between the three experimental conditions during flexion and extension (FLX FRR and EXT FRR). [Results] The FRR was decreased with increase in cognitive difficulty; the difficult cognitive task was associated with significant lower value of FLX FRR in both sides. However, these changes were not significant in easy cognitive task. In addition, the EXT FRR was decreased in cognitive task conditions, but these results were not statistically significant except for difficult cognitive task condition in comparison to no cognitive task condition in left side. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that cognitive loading can affect FRP in healthy subjects.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of subcutaneous injection with lidocaine in patients with chronic venous insufficiency in the early stage. [Subjects and Methods] Patients (n=50) randomized to the treatment group received subcutaneous injections from a mixture of physiological saline sterile solution and lidocaine once a week to both legs below the knee for 5 sessions. Patients in the treatment group were also given ankle pumping exercises and compression stockings throughout the treatment. Patients randomized to the control group (n=50) received only ankle pumping exercises and compression stockings. Patients were evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and Chronic Venous Disease Quality of life Questionnaire (CIVIQ-20) for quality-of-life at months 1, 3, 6, at the end of month 12, and at the end of the injection treatment for 5 sessions. [Results] CIVIQ-20 and VAS results were significantly lower in the treatment group, than in the control group at months 1, 3 and 6. However, CIVIQ-20 and VAS results were not significantly different, compared with the pre-operative period at month 12. [Conclusion] We observed that 5-week subcutaneous lidocaine injection treatment was effective in patients who do not respond to oral medical treatment or in whom surgery is not considered.
[Purpose] To clarify the relationship between asymmetric trunk flexion movement and erector spinae (ES) muscle activity using a three-dimensional motion analysis system and surface electromyography. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects comprised 14 healthy individuals. Angles of trunk flexion, rotation, and side bending were measured using a three-dimensional motion analysis system attached to the trunk and pelvic segment. Activities of the ES muscle on both sides at the L1 and L4 levels were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] In healthy individuals, the ES was more markedly activated in the trunk extension phase than in the trunk flexion phase. There was no significant difference in terms of the extent of trunk rotation and trunk side bending during these tasks. [Conclusion] This study did not clarify the relationship between asymmetric movement during trunk flexion and ES activity.
[Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the effect of body weight support with an assistive device on predicted locomotive physical activity measured using triaxial accelerometers in healthy young subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen healthy subjects aged 21.9 ± 1.1 years walked on a treadmill at speeds of 45 and 55 meters/min under 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% body weight support conditions. Predicted metabolic equivalents and number of steps were evaluated using triaxial accelerometers. Measured metabolic equivalents and number of steps were evaluated using a metabolic system and observers, respectively. Raw data of synthetic accelerations were also obtained. [Results] Predicted metabolic equivalents and number of steps and raw data of synthetic accelerations decreased with increasing amounts of body weight support. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that accelerometers may underestimate locomotive physical activity with increasing amounts of body weight support using assistive devices. Thus, it is important to consider the amount of body weight support when assessing physical activities in subjects using assistive devices for mobility.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of seat pressure distribution measurements based on a specific posture to predict the pressure felt level when seated. [Subjects and Methods] To examine the relationship between body pressure data and the driver’s perception, eleven subjects were selected to participate in a simulated driving experiment using a pressure mat as a direct measurement method to measure the seat pan’s pressure distribution. The buttock-popliteal length was measured using an anthropometer, and the pressure felt ratings evaluated after the body pressure measurements were recorded. Accordingly, this was then followed by performing statistical analysis using seat pressure measurements, and the buttock-popliteal length as independent variables along with subjective ratings selected of the pressure felt by the drivers’ as dependent variables. [Results] The findings of this study suggest that the direct measurements and anthropometric body data are positively correlated with the predictive model thereby confirming the validity of the model with an R2 value of 0.952. [Conclusion] The proposed model is expected to provide a useful reference value for new vehicle drivers by providing the pressure felt level based on direct and body measurements in a specific posture.
[Purpose] The present research was undertaken to investigate the awareness of ergonomics and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals and students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and to find a mean to decrease the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in the future. [Subjects and Methods] A self-administered survey was prepared and disseminated to dental professionals and students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was focused on the awareness of ergonomics and musculoskeletal disorders. Five hundred and sixty-one participants were included in this survey. [Results] Within the present study, significant differences were noticed among specialists, general practitioners and undergraduate students. Work load (risk factors) had great influence on musculoskeletal disorders in all dental practitioners, and lower back pain was the most common reported disorder among all practitioners. [Conclusion] Most of the respondent dentists seem to work in conditions that aggravate disorders of the musculoskeletal system, the increased prophylactic remedies were directly associated with the increase of the musculoskeletal disorders symptoms. All dentists regardless of their dental specialties, are recommended to apply principles of ergonomics in their daily practice. Moreover, dental ergonomics should be taught to undergraduate students and strictly implemented in the clinics to provide comfortable working environment for all dental professionals.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical effects of a nutraceutical composed (Xinepa®) combined with extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields in the carpal tunnel syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one patients with carpal tunnel syndrome were randomized into group 1-A (N=16) (nutraceutical + extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields) and group 2-C (n=15) (placebo + extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields). The dietary supplement with nutraceutical was twice daily for one month in the 1-A group and both groups received extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields at the level of the carpal tunnel 3 times per week for 12 sessions. The Visual Analogue Scale for pain, the Symptoms Severity Scale and Functional Severity Scale of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire were used at pre-treatment (T0), after the end of treatment (T1) and at 3 months post-treatment (T2). [Results] At T1 and T2 were not significant differences in outcome measures between the two groups. In group 1-A a significant improvement in the scales were observed at T1 and T2. In group 2-C it was observed only at T1. [Conclusion] Significant clinical effects from pre-treatment to the end of treatment were shown in both groups. Only in group 1-A they were maintained at 3 months post-treatment.
[Purpose] This study describes and compares the conditioning services of the roller hockey teams of the two most important leagues in Spain: the OK Liga and the First Division. [Subjects and Methods] A survey was administered to the people responsible for physical preparation. The response rate was 93%. [Results] 75% of the OK Liga teams have hired someone full time exclusively for training, with a university degree. The percentage was significantly lower in the First Division, at a 43.7%. A low percentage of the physical trainers continued with their academic training, and the consultation of scientific journals. The main deficiencies are associated with the strength training equipment and facilities. In the First Division teams, significant deficiencies were found in most of the variables associated with the training environment. These results show significant deficiencies in the conditioning services offered by the teams to their players, especially in non-professional and lower performance level teams. [Conclusion] Spanish physical trainers should take advantage of advances in scientific knowledge in the area of conditioning by studying Masters and consulting scientific journals. The clubs directors and/or coaches should be aware of the importance of conditioning to improve the training environment. Both aspects would offer a better training and rehabilitation procedure in the club.
[Purpose] This study examines the relationship between the results of computer-based testing (CBT) and level of satisfaction with learning, school life, graduation research, and national examination results among freshman and sophomore undergraduate physical therapy students. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this survey were 56 male and 42 female physical therapy students who graduated from the International University of Health and Welfare, Ohtawara, in March 2017. The students were ranked according to four 25th-percentile groups based on the results of CBT, which was conducted at the end of freshman and sophomore years. A visual analog scale was used to assess satisfaction levels at the end of sophomore, junior, and senior years. The results of the national examination were scored independently. [Results] Compared with the freshman-year CBT results, we found a significant difference in learning satisfaction during the senior year and in the national examination. In addition, compared with the sophomore-year CBT results, there was a significant difference in learning satisfaction for sophomore, junior, and senior years, as well as in the national examination. [Conclusion] We found a link between the CBT results from freshman and sophomore years and those from the national examination. The results suggest that CBT has an educational effect.
[Purpose] To clarify the relationship between the laterality of one-leg standing time (OLST) due to blocking of visual information and the laterality of hip internal rotation (IR) range of motion (ROM). [Subjects and Methods] The study included 101 young healthy male and female students. Hip IR ROM was classified into three patterns using left and right differences. Regarding OLST, differences between the left and right measured values with eyes open and closed were classified into three patterns. The matching rate between hip IR ROM laterality pattern and OLST laterality pattern was examined with eyes open and closed. The matching rate of the OLST laterality pattern with hip IR ROM laterality pattern in an imbalanced group was examined. [Results] A significant difference was observed between eyes open and closed conditions in the matching rates of OLST and Hip IR ROM laterality patterns in the imbalanced group. In the imbalanced group, the pattern on the side where the Hip IR is greater changes to coincide with the pattern on the side where the OLST is longer, under the eyes closed condition. [Conclusion] OLST on the side of greater Hip IR ROM tends to be longer due to visual information interception.
[Purpose] To support home care patients through specialist teams, it is important that home-visiting specialists recognize the roles of other professionals. The present study aimed to determine whether home-visiting specialists recognized the roles of various other professionals. [Subjects and Methods] The study population comprised 400 nurses, 400 rehabilitation specialists, and 122 managerial dieticians providing home medical care. A questionnaire examining whether the home-visiting specialists recognize the roles of various other professionals was mailed to the participants. Returned questionnaires indicated agreement for participation in this study. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, 49 nurses (response rate: 12.3%), 74 rehabilitation specialists (18.5%), and 42 managerial dieticians (34.4%) were included in the study. [Results] Among all the professionals, the recognition of roles of their own profession was greater than that of other professions, as indicated by their response to the question “to explain possible changes in symptoms and how to deal with possible changes in symptoms.” Unlike in case of other professionals, role recognition among managerial dieticians was less than 70% for all items. [Conclusion] Home medical care teams do not always comprise the most suitable professionals. An understanding of how to compensate for gaps in professional roles is therefore important. Good physical assessment skills and an understanding of symptoms of various disorders is important, regardless of the profession.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of scapula movement on neck alignment and the muscles in patients with forward head posture, who has the structural changes around the neck caused from the forward head posture, when scapular stabilization exercise is applied. [Subjects and Methods] A sample of 30 patients with forward head posture were recruited and participated in an intervention for 30 minutes a day, three times per week for 4 weeks. Fifteen patients were assigned to the scapular stabilization exercise group and the remaining 15 were assigned to the neck stabilization exercise group. Before the intervention, the craniovertebral angle (CVA), cranial rotation angle (CRA), and muscle activity of the muscles around the neck were measured. Four weeks later, these 3 factors were re-measured and analyzed. [Results] Within-group changes in CVA and CRA were observed in both groups and were statistically significant. Only the CVA group had a statistically significant between-group differences. Within-group changes in muscular activity were significant differences in all groups. Between groups, the lower back trapezius and serratus anterior showed statistically significant differences. [Conclusion] Scapular stabilization brought about improvement in posture through activation of the neck muscles, the lower trapezius, and the serratus anterior. Therefore, the intervention has a positive effect on neck alignment by reducing the compensatory movements of the muscles involved in forward head posture. Structural changes are observed.
[Purpose] To clarify the relationship between white matter fiber damage and the Ability for Basic Movement Scale (ABMS) II in patients with stroke in a diffusion tensor tract-based spatial statistic study. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve patients with stroke (seven men and five women, mean age ± SD: 61.6 ± 8.5 years) were evaluated using the ABMS II. The patients were divided into the ABMS II good group and the ABMS II poor group. Tract-based spatial statistical analysis was performed using diffusion tensor images in both groups. [Results] Patients in the ABMS II good group had significantly higher fractional anisotropy values of the anterior thalamic radiation (ATR), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus (IOF), and uncinate fasciculus (UF) of the lesion-containing hemisphere than patients in the ABMS II poor group. [Conclusion] ATR, SLF, and IOF damage may affect ABMS II scores in patients with stroke.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of trunk stabilization exercise on the transvers abdominalis (TA) and internal oblique (IO) muscle activity and balance ability of normal subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Forty healthy male subjects without orthopedic history of the lower extremity were selected for the present study. The experimental group received a hollowing exercise, curl-up and bridging exercise. The control group received a pelvic tilting exercise in the sitting position for the same period of time. [Results] Significant differences in the post-training gains in Balance index, TA, IO were observed between the experimental group and the control group. [Conclusion] The trunk stabilization exercise improved the balance ability and increased the activity of the TA and IO muscle.
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of the therapeutic device combined with LED and microcurrent (MC) on muscle tone and stiffness in the calf muscle after its application during moderate aerobic exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy adult subjects were randomized to either the test group of the therapeutic device combined with LED and MC or the control group, and they walked on a 10%-sloped treadmill with a 5 km/hr speed for 30 minutes. Each of the subjects in the test group performed treadmill exercise with the therapeutic device attached to the edge of his or her calf muscle. After the exercise, the muscle tone and stiffness at the edge of the calf muscle were measured. [Results] With respect to the muscle tone, a statistically significant difference was found between the two groups only 5 minutes after the exercise. Concerning muscle stiffness, significant differences were shown between the two groups right after the exercise and 5 minutes after the exercise. [Conclusion] Integrated treatment with LED and MC on is considered helpful for lowering the muscle tone 5 minutes after the exercise, and for lowering the muscle stiffness right after the exercise and 5 minutes after the exercise.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the differences in ventilation mechanics between quiet breathing and expiratory rib cage compression, and between expiratory rib cage compression on the upper rib cage and on the lower rib cage. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects comprised 6 healthy males. Expiratory rib cage compression was performed manually by compressing the upper and lower rib cages. Changes in the lung volume, flow rate, and esophageal and gastric pressure were examined. [Results] The end expiratory lung volume was significantly lower during expiratory rib cage compression than at rest, but the end inspiratory lung volume was not significantly different. When compared with the esophageal and gastric pressures on the upper and lower rib cages at rest, the gastric pressures were significantly higher at end expiration. Lung resistance was significantly higher during expiratory rib cage compression than at rest. [Conclusion] Although expiratory rib cage compression promoted expiration and increased tidal volume, the lung volume did not increase beyond end inspiratory levels at rest. Lung resistance may increase during expiratory rib cage compression due to a decrease in lung volume. The mechanism by which expiration is promoted differed between the upper and lower rib cages.
[Purpose] To investigate the effect of electrical stimulation and pelvic floor muscle training on muscle strength, urinary incontinence and erectile function in men with prostate cancer treated by radical prostatectomy. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred twenty-three males were randomized into 3 groups 1 month after RP: (G1, n=40) control; (G2, n=41) guideline: patients were instructed to perform three types of home exercises to strengthen the pelvic floor and (G3, n=42) electrical stimulation: patients in this group were also instructed to perform exercises as group G2, and also received anal electro-stimulation therapy, twice a week for 7 weeks. The primary outcome assessment was based on the measurement of the recovery of pelvic floor muscle strength between groups. Secondary outcomes were: 1 hour Pad Test, ICIQ-SF, IIEF-5 and IPSS. Data were obtained preoperatively and at 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery. [Results] There was no significant difference in the demographic data among groups. Greater urinary leakage and pelvic floor muscle weakness in the first month compared to pre treatment improved after 3 and 6 months postoperative, without difference among groups. [Conclusion] The muscle strength recovery occurs independently of the therapy employed. Pelvic floor exercises or electrical stimulation also did not have an impact on the recovery of urinary continence and erectile function in our study.
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of active vibration exercise using a Flexi-Bar on the balance and gait of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two patients with chronic stroke were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group (n=11 each). The experimental group performed active vibration exercise using a Flexi-Bar. Balance was measured using the Berg Balance Scale and Functional Reach Test. Gait was measured with the 10-meter Walk Test and Timed Up and Go Test. [Results] Intragroup comparisons in the experimental group showed significant differences in Berg Balance Scale, Functional Reach Test, 10-meter Walk Test, and Timed Up and Go Test results, whereas intergroup comparisons showed significant differences in Berg Balance Scale, Functional test, 10-meter Walk Test, and TUGT results. [Conclusion] On the basis of these results, it was concluded that active vibration exercise using a Flexi-Bar effectively improves the balance and gait of patients with chronic stroke.
[Purpose] To establish the test-retest reliabilities, minimal detectable change of the Short form Barthel Index and associations with stroke-specific impairments. [Subjects and Methods] The Short form-Barthel Index assessment was tested on 24 chronic stroke patients twice, 7 days apart. A relative reliability index (ICC2,1), Weighted Kappa Coefficients was used to examine the level of agreement of test-retest reliability for SF-BI, Absolute reliability indices, including the standard error of measurement and the minimal detectable change. The validity was demonstrated by spearman correlation of SF BI-total score with Postural Assessment Scale for Storke, Fugl Meyer Assessment. [Results] There was excellent agreement between test-retest for individual items of BI and total score ICC2,1=0.91 and it all showed acceptable SEM and MDC were 2.83 score, 7.84 score respectively. The item-to-total correlations were all significant, ranging from r=0.83–0.92. SF-BI showed good internal consistency. Individual items also possessed high internal consistency 0.82–0.86. The SF-BI and total score were demonstrated high concurrent validity with the PASS, FMA. [Conclusion] This study has demonstrated that the SF-BI is a useful instrument with high test-retest reliability, Absolute reliability indices, internal consistency and validity.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the changes in sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) activity when using a cervical support pillow (CSP) and to determine the pillow’s effect on satisfaction in asymptomatic participants. [Subjects and Methods] This study followed a cross-over design and the order of the measurements was counterbalanced. Twenty asymptomatic participants were positioned supine for 5 minutes by using either a CSP or a general pillow (GP) while the activity of the SCM was measured using surface electromyography. [Results] The CSP significantly decreased the activity of the SCM compared with the GP, and satisfaction after use of the CSP was significantly greater than that after use of the GP. [Conclusion] This study suggests that the CSP may be effective in preventing unnecessary neck muscle activation during sleep in asymptomatic people.
[Purpose] The aim of the study was to conduct a systematic review about rehabilitation treatment of hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, according to Evidence Based Medicine. [Methods] A systematic search has been conducted in following database: PubMed, PEDro, Cochrane, EDS Base Index, TRIP and CINHAL; no time restrictions were adopted. PICO method was employed to formulate the clinical query. Hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and physiotherapy were the main keywords of the research. [Results] 1,869 articles emerged from the primary search. After duplicates removal, 1,709 papers have been screened by title and abstracts and then 1,698 were excluded following the inclusion criteria. 11 papers have been admitted to the last stage of the review and have been evaluated in their full-text version. Only one cohort study met the review’s final step selection criteria. One cohort study on the efficacy of an integrated physiotherapeutic and cognitive behavioural treatment was evaluated by means of Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment score and resulted of poor evidence. [Conclusion] At the present time, there is no Evidence Based Medicine literature on hypermobile Helers-Danlos syndrome rehabilitation. Clinical studies with high level of evidence are necessary in order to assess the efficacy of physiotherapeutic approaches.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of continuous knee joint traction treatment on the pain and quality of life of patients with degenerative gonarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Continuous knee joint traction treatment was administered to 59 year-old man and 62 year-old woman diagnosed with degenerative gonarthritis for 20 minutes, once a day, five times a week for 4 weeks. Pain and quality of life were measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the short form 36-item health survey (SF-36), respectively. [Results] The VAS score of the male patient before treatment was 8 points but it decreased to 1 point after treatment, and SF-36 score increased from 81 points before treatment to 93 points after treatment. In addition, the VAS score of the 62 year-old female patient was 7 points before treatment but it decreased to 2 points after treatment, and SF-36 score increased from 78 points before treatment to 96 points after treatment. [Conclusion] The purpose of the study was to report 2 cases of patients with degenerative gonarthritis of the knee who received continuous knee joint traction.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to confirm the correlation between racket velocity during the forehand smash movements with shoulder extensor strength and internal rotator strength in the neutral and abducted positions. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen collegiate badminton players participated in the study. Measurements were performed shoulder strength, using torque calculated from the upper extremity length and the isometric force, and racket velocity during the forehand smash movements. The shoulder extensor strength and internal rotator strength were measured in the neutral and abducted positions. [Results] The extension torque and internal rotation torque of the shoulder in the neutral position were not significantly correlated with racket velocity. Additionally, correlations between extension torque of the shoulder in the maximum abducted position and racket velocity were insignificant. However, the internal rotation torque of the shoulder in the abducted external rotated position was significantly correlated with racket velocity (r=0.652). [Conclusion] The shoulder internal rotator strength in the abducted external rotated position are suitable measurements for evaluating badminton players.
[Purpose] To investigate the prevalence of neck and shoulder symptoms during the use of tablet computer, and to identify the risk factors associated with these symptoms. [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional survey was conducted to study tablet computer usage, posture during use, and neck and shoulder symptoms in 412 participants in a school setting. Significant risk factors for musculoskeletal symptoms during tablet computer use were identified. [Results] Overall prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms during tablet computer use was 67.9% with greater prevalence of neck symptoms (neck: 84.6%; shoulder/upper extremity: 65.4%). Significant risk factors associated with symptoms during use were: current musculoskeletal symptoms, gender, roles, and postural factors including: sitting without back support, sitting with device in lap, and lying on the side and on the back during tablet computer use. A multivariate analysis further showed that the odds for females to have symptoms were 2.059 times higher than males. [Conclusion] The findings revealed that female gender and other postural factors were significantly associated with musculoskeletal symptoms during the use of tablet computer. Among all postural factors, sitting without back support was identified as the most important risk factor for having musculoskeletal symptoms.
[Purpose] Most studies on bodyblade exercise have examined changes in muscle activities in the trunk and shoulders according to the hand position or direction while in a standing position. The present study compared and examined the changes in muscle activities around the shoulders and trunk according to different bodyblade lifting methods during stabilization exercise in a quadruped position. [Subjects and Methods] The present study was conducted on 20 healthy males. The following exercise four types were performed with the bodyblade held by flexing the dominant arm at 180° in a quadruped position. The muscle activity and the ratio of muscle activity were measured. [Results] The SA and IO, EO muscles showed significant differences. Moreover, the SA/UT activity ratio showed significant differences according to the type of exercise. The Tukey’s post hoc test results were as follows: for the SA muscle, exercise types 4, 2 were more effective than types 1, 3: and for the IO muscle, types 1, 2 were more effective than types 3, 4. [Conclusion] The present study showed that type 2 scapular stabilization exercise (crossed leg lifting with the hand raised above the head on a vertical plane) showed selective and positive effects on trunk muscle strengthening and stabilization. In future, additional studies are required to design effective exercise programs for pain management and improvement of muscle activities in patients with complaints of shoulder pain due to scapular winging.
[Purpose] To examine whether the needs of older individuals are commonly understood by multidisciplinary team members at elderly care facilities. [Subjects and Methods] A questionnaire survey with care workers, nurses, and therapists linked to residents and structured interviews with residents were conducted at eight facilities in Japan. The questionnaire comprised 25 items regarding basic activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), environment and lifestyle (EL), and emotion. [Results] The data of 88 residents (83.0% female, 86.4% aged ≥75 years) and 125 staff members (63 care workers, 36 nurses, and 26 therapists) were analyzed. Perceptions regarding the subjective needs of residents differed significantly by occupation with regard to pace of eating, pace of dressing, and freedom to brush at any time; shaving or putting on make-up; personal space, role performance, and health exercises; and feeling good. All three occupations underestimated the subjective needs of residents for household chores. [Conclusion] Staff members had insufficient understanding of the subjective needs of residents, with a tendency to underestimate IADL and EL needs. Perceived subjective needs also differed by occupation. Sharing the understanding of subjective needs of older individuals within multidisciplinary care teams is desired.
[Purpose] To investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on rehabilitation outcomes and balance in patients having hemiplegia due to ischemic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Vitamin D levels of 132 patients hospitalized for hemiplegia rehabilitation due to ischemic stroke were tested. Consequently, 86/132 patients had low vitamin D levels, 72 of which met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups: Group A (injected with 300,000 IU vitamin D), and Group B (injected intramuscularly with saline). Each patient was tested at the baseline and at the third month using the Brunnstrom recovery staging, functional ambulation scale, modified Barthel index, and Berg balance scale. The findings were compared between the groups. [Results] By the end of the third month, The Berg balance scale results and modified Barthel index scores significantly differed between the two groups, whereas Brunnstrom recovery staging and functional ambulation scale test results did not. [Conclusion] This study found that vitamin D administration increased the activity levels and accelerated balance recovery but did not significantly affect ambulation or motor recovery. These results warrant confirmation by longer follow-up studies with a larger number of participants.
[Purpose] To explore the effects of good binocular visual acuity (BVA) compared to poor BVA, reach distance, task velocity, and center of mass (COM) acceleration were evaluated in elderly females performing the Y-Balance Test (YBT) using a cross-sectional design. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 13 participants had BVA of ≥0.4 log of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) (poor BVA group), and the other 13 had BVA of ≤0.3 logMAR (good BVA group). An accelerometer was attached over participants’ L3 spinous process, and they then performed the YBT. [Results] The normalized reach distances in the three directions among the good BVA group were longer than those among the poor BVA group. The task velocity in the good BVA group was significantly higher, whereas COM acceleration in the A direction was significantly lower compared with the poor BVA group. [Conclusion] Visual status must be considered when older adult individuals undergo physical therapy and functional training to ensure that healthcare professionals can better assist older adult women.
[Purpose] This study aimed to determine the awareness amongst healthcare staff of post-stroke cognitive impairment in a university teaching hospital and supporting stroke rehabilitation unit. [Subjects and Methods] A cross sectional study was employed to collect data from 20 healthcare staff about post-stroke cognitive impairment. This study was conducted in Ireland at two sites, the Acute Stroke unit in Cork University Hospital, and the Stroke Rehabilitation unit and Assessment and Treatment Centre in St. Finbarr’s Hospital. [Results] Approximately 75% of participants felt that they had knowledge about post-stroke cognitive deficits, with around 50% of them having patients with persistent cognitive decline between 40% and 60%. Most participants (70%) agreed that cognitive function should be routinely assessed and the majority (85%) discussed the potential impact of post-stroke cognitive deficits with patients and their families. However, some participants need to be aware of post-stroke cognitive deterioration. [Conclusion] Although there was evidence of good practice, a small number of healthcare staff felt that they did not have sufficient knowledge about post-stroke cognitive deficits. Thus, further professional education should be provided to improve the knowledge of healthcare staff about potential cognitive impairments after stroke.
[Purpose] The main purpose of the study was to examine the relationship of a battery of frequently used functional assessment tests with quadriceps and hamstrings isokinetic strength in Knee-osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Secondarily, the predictability of isokinetic strength on these performance variables was also assessed. [Subjects and Methods] Seventeen males and 23 females with Knee-OA, were assessed via a) the common functional tests: 6-minute walk test, Timed up-and-go test, 30-second chair test and 12-stair test and b) isokinetic concentric extension-flexion at 120°/s and 180°/s. [Results] Both Knee Extension and Flexion Peak Torque per Body weight showed moderate to strong, statistically significant correlation, with all 4-functional performance tests, for both velocities. Both 12-stair test and 30-second chair test were significant predictors in all analyses, while the 6-minute walk test was an additional significant predictor of the 120°/s knee flexion. [Conclusion] Thigh muscle strength in both tested velocities proved to be significantly correlated with functional performance. The 12-stair test and 30-second chair test results were significant predictors for isokinetic extension and flexion in both velocities. It appears that those two tests challenge the knee and the surrounding musculature in a manner that reflects muscle strength.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of trunk stabilization circuit exercise using a rubber mat on the thickness and white area index of the transverse abdominis in college students in their 20’s. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental group and the control group. Those exercises were provided to twenty eight healthy adults in their 20s for four weeks and the thickness of transverse abdominis was measured before study and after 4 weeks. [Results] There were significant differences in interaction between two groups. Paired t-test for thickness and white area index of transverse abdominis showed statistically significant differences to experimentals than controls. Independent t-test for white area index of transverse abdominis also showed statistically significant differences to experimentals than controls. [Conclusion] In conclusion, there was statistically significant difference between the effects of trunk stabilization circuit exercises on back muscles according to types of the surface, and it is expected that this result will be used as a basic data in studies of abdominal muscle stabilization in the future.