Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Online ISSN : 2187-5626
Print ISSN : 0915-5287
ISSN-L : 0915-5287
Volume 29 , Issue 3
March
Showing 1-41 articles out of 41 articles from the selected issue
Original Article
  • Hyo-Jeong Kwon, You Lim Kim, Hyun Soo Lee, Suk Min Lee
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 378-383
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to assess the physical fitness of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). [Subjects and Methods] In total, 26 children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and 25 healthy controls participated in this study. Using the physical fitness measurement instruments, the Inbody 720 and Quark b2, the elements of physical fitness that were assessed included muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, lung capacity, and body composition. [Results] The results revealed significant differences in muscular strength, muscular endurance, lung capacity, body composition, functional ability, and health-related quality of life between the children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and the control group. [Conclusion] These results suggested that children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) have inferior physical fitness when compared to healthy children. The present study was conducted to develop an accurate evaluation standard to assess the physical fitness of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA).

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  • So-Young An, Seung-Suk Kim, Gunsoo Han
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 384-386
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] This study examined the effect of belly dancing on the urinary incontinence-related muscles and vaginal pressure in middle-aged women to provide fundamental data for establishing an effective training program focusing on mitigating and preventing urinary incontinence. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included 24 middle-aged women, who have been diagnosed with urinary incontinence. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups, viz. the experimental group (N=12) and control group (N=12). The experimental group underwent a belly dancing program focusing on pelvis moves. [Results] In the experimental group, the urinary incontinence-related muscle strength and vaginal pressure were increased, while the control group showed no significant change. [Conclusion] Belly dancing focusing on pelvis moves had a positive effect on the urinary incontinence-related muscle strength and vaginal pressure, suggesting that a recreational dance program focusing on pelvic exercise can be used to prevent and relieve the symptoms of urinary incontinence as a non-surgical treatment.

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  • Seung-Kyu Kim, Gak HwangBo
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 387-389
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of horse-riding simulator exercise on balance in elderly with knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis were recruited, a horse-riding simulator group performed exercise three times a week for eight weeks. And each exercise was performed for 30 minutes. [Results] The horse-riding simulator group showed significant differences after the intervention in Short Form Berg Balance Scale, Functional reaching test. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that horse-riding simulator exercise is effective on knee osteoarthritis. Therefore, horse-riding simulator exercise can be used balance training for knee osteoarthritis.

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  • Eun-ji Go, Sang-Heon Lee
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 390-393
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
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    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate interface pressure redistribution in healthy volunteers when applying different cushions and anterior wedge heights. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 36 healthy individuals in their 20s. The peak and mean pressures were measured by applying different cushions and anterior wedge heights. The results were analyzed by using a one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc analysis. [Results] The peak and mean pressures were statistically significant based on the cushion types and anterior wedge height. The peak pressure was at its highest and lowest when sitting on a 6-cm anterior wedge and a foam cushion, respectively. The mean pressure was greatest when sitting on a 6-cm anterior wedge of a firm surface and smallest when sitting on a 5 cm foam cushion. [Conclusion] This study shows that the most effective method for pressure redistribution was sitting on a 5 cm foam cushion without an anterior wedge.

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  • Tulay Yildirim, Dilek Solmaz, Murat Emul, Gurkan Akgol, Dilek Yalvac, ...
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 394-400
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare the most common dominant affective temperaments in Ankylosing Spondylitis patients and investigate the relationship between the dominant affective temperaments and pain levels, disease activity, quality of life, current depression, and anxiety level in Ankylosing Spondylitis patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-one patients diagnosed with axial spondiloartropathy and forty-two age- and gender-matched control subjects were included in this study. Disease duration, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum C-reactive protein, pain by the Visual Analog Scale, disease activity by the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, functional status by the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index; psychological status by the Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory and overall health assessment by the Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life Scale were assessed in patients. The Turkish version of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Auto Questionnaire was used to determine the dominant affective temperament. [Results] There was no statistical difference in the distribution of temperament subtypes between patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis and the controls. Depressive, anxious, and cyclothymic temperament scores were higher in patients with high values on the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index and Visual Analog Scale. There was a correlation between anxious subtypes of affective temperament scores and the value of Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life Scale. Correlation analysis also found depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious temperament and psychiatric symptoms to be significantly related. [Conclusion] Affective temperament may contribute to symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis and may increase disease activity and may reduce their quality of life.

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  • Seong Youl Choi, Jae Shin Lee
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 401-404
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
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    [Purpose] This study analyzed the cognitive functions according to risk level for the Driver 65 Plus measure, and examined the cognitive basis of self-assessment for screening the driving risk of elderly drivers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 46 older drivers with a driver’s license participated in this study. All participants were evaluated with Driver 65 Plus. They were classified into three groups of “safe,” “caution” and “stop,” and examined for cognitive functions with Trail Making Test and Montreal Cognitive Assessment-K. The cognitive test results of the three groups were compared. [Results] Trail Making Test-A, Trail Making Test-B, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment-K showed a significant difference between the three groups. The safe group showed significantly higher ability than the caution and stop groups in the three cognitive tests. In addition, cognitive functions of naming, attention, language, and delayed recall were significantly different between the three groups. [Conclusion] Self-assessment of older drivers is a useful tool for screening the cognitive aspects of driving risk. The cognitive functions, such as attention and recall, are the critical factors for screening the driving risk of elderly drivers.

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  • Sang-Yeol Lee, Seon-Chill Kim, Young-Ik Lee
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 405-408
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to develop a new handle holder by modifying the inclination of the existing handle holder to reduce load on the wrist joints. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study consisted of 25 elderly people aged 65 years or older accustomed to a walker-assisted gait. Two types of handle holders ((1) standard handle holder (2) inclination handle holder) were applied to all subjects and their wrist joint movement and muscle activity were measured while they conducted 10 cycle walker-assisted gait. [Results] The use of an inclination handle holder during the walker-assisted gait decreased considerably the extensor carpi radialis longus activity and angles of the ulnar deviation and wrist extension. [Conclusion] Improvements in the overall structure of a walker may be a new tool for improving existing walker users but the replacement cost will be expensive. The inclination handle holder presented in this study decreases the burden on the wrist joints of walker users without any overall structural changes in the walker, thereby reducing the occurrence of musculoskeletal diseases of the wrist joint during the walker-assisted gait of elderly people.

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  • Kazuya Yoshida, Sumikazu Akiyama, Masayoshi Takamori, Hiroshi Otsuka, ...
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 409-412
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] In order to detect muscle activity with manual muscle testing, T2-weighted magnetic resonance (T2w-MR) images were detected by a 0.2 T compact MRI system. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 3 adult males. Transverse T2-weighted multi-slice spin-echo images of the left forearm were measured by a 39 ms echo-time with a 2,000 ms repetition time, a 9.5 mm slice thickness, 1 accumulation and a total image acquisition time of 4 min 16 s. First, T2w-MR images in the resting condition were measured. Then, manipulative isometric contraction exercise (5 sec duration) to the supinator muscle, the pronator teres muscle or the extensor indicis muscle was performed using Borg’s rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale of 15–17. The T2w-MR images were measured immediately after the exercise. [Results] T2w-MR image intensities increased significantly in the supinator muscle, the pronator teres muscle and the extensor indicis muscle after the exercise. However, the image intensities in the rest of the muscle did not change. [Conclusion] Using T2w-MR images, we could detect muscle activity in a deep muscle, the supinator muscle, and a small muscle, the extensor indicis muscle. These results also support the reliability of the manual muscle testing method.

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  • Takashi Kondo, Takeshi Muneta, Tsutomu Fukui
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 413-418
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] To investigate the relationship between the static measurement of the transverse arch of the forefoot, using a 3-dimensional (3D) foot scanner, and kinetics and kinematics of gait parameters in the sagittal plane. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. The transverse arch of the forefoot was measured under three conditions as follows: condition 1, sitting; condition 2, standing; and condition 3, foot forward and lower leg tilting anteriorly to the maximum position with heel contact. Gait parameters were recorded using a 3D motion analysis system and force plate. Correlation coefficients between TAF for each comparison of conditions and gait parameters were calculated using the Spearman correlation analysis. [Results] Rates of the transverse arch of the forefoot width and height between condition 2 and condition 3 were significantly correlated with the anterior and posterior component of ground reaction forces, the hip joint extension angle, and the ankle plantar flexion moment. [Conclusion] Our study’s findings indicated that increased stiffness of the transverse arch of the forefoot was related to the increase in ankle plantar moment, and decreased stiffness of the transverse arch of the forefoot was related to the increase in hip joint extension angle during gait.

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  • Mayumi Araki, Yoichi Hatamoto, Yasuki Higaki, Hiroaki Tanaka
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 419-424
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
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    [Purpose] To maintain an independent lifestyle, older adults should improve muscle strength and mass, or aerobic capacity. A new exercise pattern, called slow walking with turns, which incorporates turning as an extra load additional to walking. The purpose of this study was to measure oxygen consumption during exercise and muscle activity while turning. [Subjects and Methods] Recreationally active volunteers participated. The participants performed 20 turns per minute while walking back and forth over distances of 1.5 to 3.5 m. We measured oxygen consumption, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion and performed electromyography during the exercise. [Results] The metabolic equivalents of the exercise were 4.0 ± 0.4 to 6.3 ± 4.0 Mets. Activity was significantly greater in the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and erector spinae during the turn phase of slow walking with turns than during the stance phase of treadmill walking. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that slow walking with turns may help to preserve the muscle strength and mass of the trunk and lower limbs that are needed to maintain an independent lifestyle. Slow walking can be performed easily by older people, and in slow walking with turns, the exercise intensity can be adjusted as required for each individual.

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  • Nobuo Morotomi, Masakazu Saitoh, Noriko Ishii, Kayoko Ohno, Masatoshi ...
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 425-431
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] Although cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is recommended for patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), adequate exercise effect cannot be obtained in elderly patients. Administration of amino acids (AA) to CHF patients has been reported to improve exercise capacity, but the changes in AA composition in plasma before and after CR had not been reported. This study aimed to measure plasma levels of AA in CHF patients and compare with values of normal range. In addition the relationship between the change of exercise capacity and AA were examined. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve CHF patients (60% males, aged 68 ± 12 years) were studied. The correction between the rates of changes in exercise capacity parameters and in plasma AA levels was investigated. [Results] Anaerobic threshold (AT) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2) improved significantly after CR. The AA profile showed no specific pattern, and citrulline (Cit) was the amino acid showing a significant positive correlation with exercise capacity (∆Cit vs. ∆AT: r=0.602, ∆Cit vs. ∆AT-work rate (WR): r=0.681, ∆Cit vs. ∆VO2/WR: r=0.635). A tendency of positive correlation was observed between ∆Cit and ∆peak VO2 (r=0.456). [Conclusion] The AA profile showed no specific pattern, but a relationship between change in exercise capacity and Cit were found.

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  • Tatsuya Ishizuka, Naoya Nishida, Yuuki Homma, Tetsuro Hirayama, Yukisa ...
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 432-437
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
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    [Purpose] This study aimed to introduce an approach of pelvic suspension (PS) using sling cords and to obtain evidence for changes in respiratory function of healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 25 healthy men. In the supine position, with hip and knee joints flexed at 90°, the subjects’ pelvises were suspended with sling belts. Diaphragm excursion, respiratory function, and respiratory comfort in these postures were measured using ultrasonography, respirometry, and visual analog scale (VAS), respectively. [Results] When the pelvis was passively suspended with sling cords, the diaphragm moved 5 mm cranially and diaphragm excursion showed an instantaneous increase compared with the control. The tidal volume (VT) showed an increase and the respiration rate (RR) showed a decrease. The extent of diaphragm excursion was correlated with changes in VT under the control and PS conditions. Independent measurements of pulmonary function revealed that PS reduced the expiratory reserve volume, being correlated positively and negatively to increases in vital and inspiratory capacities, respectively. Furthermore, VAS values for respiratory ease were greater with PS than with the control. [Conclusion] These results suggest that PS effectively changed diaphragm excursion and respiratory function, leading to ease of breathing (i.e., deep and slow respiration).

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  • KwangYong Park
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 438-441
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
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    [Purpose] This study examined the impact of wearing a functional foot orthotic on the pelvic angle of young adults who have flatfoot. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 15 college students diagnosed with flatfoot were included in the study. Changes in the pelvic angle in the stance period during walking before and after orthotic use were measured using a VICON Motion System (VICON, Hansung, Korea). The data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 for Windows. [Results] In the experimental group, the pelvic angle during the mid-stance and mid-swing periods of the gait cycle significantly decreased on the left and right sides after wearing the orthotic, compared to the measurements taken before orthotic usage. The pelvic angle change on the left and right sides also decreased after wearing the orthotic, though this difference was not significant. [Conclusion] The pelvic angle of college students with flatfoot decreased after they wore orthotics. This implies that wearing orthotic shoes can greatly benefit individuals during normal walking by promoting passive changes that decrease the pelvic angle.

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  • Kouji Ikeda, Kenji Suehiro, Akito Kizu, Hideki Kunieda, Hirokazu Takas ...
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 442-447
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the kinematic characteristics at the start of lateral movement in the sitting position, for application in physical therapy. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy male subjects (mean age, 24.8 ± 3.7 years) were included in the study after they provided informed consent. The electromyographic activities of the tensor fascia lata, gluteus medius, and rectus femoris, and the center of pressure (COP) displacement during lateral reach in the sitting position were measured. The task was recorded on video for analysis. [Results] In almost all subjects, before the beginning of the task, the electromyographic activity in the opposite side of each studied muscle was recorded, and the opposite and anterior displacement of the COP was observed. The video analysis revealed that all subjects showed lateral displacement of the thoracic part of the trunk after the start of the task. However, the lumbar region and pelvis maintained their starting positions. [Conclusion] COP displacement occurred in the reverse reaction before the task, and this involved the hip girdle muscles of the opposite side. A reverse reaction displaced the pelvis to the opposite side to ensure instability of posture through side tilting of the trunk at the beginning of the task.

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  • Yoko Tsuji, Yoshiteru Akezaki, Kohei Mori, Yoshimi Yuri, Hitomi Katsum ...
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 448-451
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors causing falling among patients with schizophrenia hospitalized in psychiatric hospitals. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were divided into either those having experienced a fall within the past one year (Fall group, 12 patients) and those not having experienced a fall (Non-fall group, 7 patients), and we examined differences between the two groups. Assessment items measured included muscle strength, balance ability, flexibility, body composition assessment, Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF), the antipsychotic drug intake, and Drug Induced Extra-Pyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS). [Results] As a result, significant differences were observed in regard to One leg standing time with eyes open, Time Up and Go Test (TUGT), and DIEPSS Sialorrhea between the Fall group and the Non-fall group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that a decrease in balance ability was significantly correlated with falling in schizophrenia patients.

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  • Jin Lee, Ju-O Kim, Byoung-Hee Lee
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 452-456
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
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    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of posterior talar glide (PTG) with dorsiflexion of the ankle on stroke patients ankle mobility, muscle strength, and balance ability. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-four subjects were randomly assigned to either a PTG with dorsiflexion group (PTG; n=17), or a weight-bearing with placebo PTG group (control; n=17). Subjects in the PTG group performed PTG with dorsiflexion, designed to improve ankle mobility, muscle strength and balance ability with proprioceptive control of the ankle, for 10 glides of 5 sets/day, 5 days/week, for 4 weeks. [Results] The experimental group showed significant improvement on the Ankle Dorsiflexion Range of Motion assessment, Ankle Dorsiflexor Manual Muscle Test, Functional Reach Test, Time Up and Go test, and Functional Gait Assessment compared to the control group. However, regarding Ankle Plantarflexion Range of Motion assessment and the Ankle Plantarflexor Manual Muscle Test, no significant differences were found between the two groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study show that PTG with dorsiflexion can improve ankle mobility, muscle strength and balance ability in patients recovering from stroke. This exercise may prove useful in clinical rehabilitation. Further research on the long-term effectiveness of PTG on gait ability is suggested.

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  • Yoo-Im Choi, Chiang-Soon Song, Byung-Yoon Chun
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 457-460
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
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    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between daily activities and manual dexterity in persons with Parkinson disease. [Subjects and Methods] The study participants were 25 patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease. This study used two clinical tools, the box-and-block test and Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living scale, to investigate the relationship between manual dexterity and Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living score. [Results] A positive correlation was observed between the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living and the box-and-block test scores on the more and less affected sides. Moreover, the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living score had a greater correlation with the box-and-block test score on the less affected side than that on the more affected side. [Conclusion] Manual dexterity and activities of daily living showed a positive correlation in individuals with Parkinson disease. The results of this study suggest that manual dexterity is an important factor for predicting physical performance in daily living in persons with Parkinson disease.

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  • Kazumasa Nakagawa, Misako Maeda
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 461-464
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
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    [Purpose] From the viewpoint of prevention of knee osteoarthritis, the aim of this study was to verify how muscle strength and joint laxity are related to knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects consisted of 90 community-dwelling elderly people aged more than 60 years (22 males, 68 females). Femorotibial angle alignment, knee joint laxity, knee extensors and flexor muscle strengths were measured in all subjects. In addition, the subjects were divided into four groups based on the presence of laxity and knee joint deformation, and the muscle strength values were compared. [Results] There was no significant difference in knee extensor muscle strength among the four groups. However, there was significant weakness of the knee flexor muscle in the group with deformation and laxity was compared with the group without deformation and laxity. [Conclusion] Decreased knee flexor muscle strengths may be involved in knee joint deformation. The importance of muscle strength balance was also considered.

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  • KyoChul Seo, Park Seung Hwan, KwangYong Park
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 465-469
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of inspiratory diaphragm breathing exercise and expiratory pursed-lip breathing exercise on chronic stroke patients’ respiratory muscle activation. [Subjects and Methods] All experimental subjects performed exercises five times per week for four weeks. Thirty chronic stroke patients were randomly assign to an experimental group of 15 patients and a control group of 15 patients. The experimental group underwent exercises consisting of basic exercise treatment for 15 minutes and inspiratory diaphragm breathing exercise and expiratory pursed-lip breathing exercise for 15 minutes and the control group underwent exercises consisting of basic exercise treatment for 15 minutes and auto-med exercise for 15 minutes. The activation levels of respiratory muscles were measured before and after the experiment using MP 150WSW to obtain the results of the experiment. [Results] In the present study, when the pulmonary functions of the experimental group and the control group before and after the experiment were compared, whereas the experimental group showed significant differences in all sections. In the verification of intergroup differences between the experimental group and the control group before and after the experiment. [Conclusion] The respiratory rehabilitation exercise is considered to be capable of inducing positive effects on stroke patients’ respiratory muscles through diaphragm breathing exercise and lip puckering breathing exercise.

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  • Kensuke Matsuda, Shou Ikeda, Tsubasa Mitsutake, Masami Nakahara, Yoshi ...
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 470-475
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] Prevention of dementia requires early intervention against it. To ensure that early interventions are effective it is crucial to study the cognitive functions related to dementia in young adulthood. Moreover, it is needed not only to verify the cognitive function test but also to elucidate the actual brain activity and the influence of related factors on the brain activity. To investigate the factors influencing cognitive function among young adults and examine the differences in executive function by physical activity level. [Subjects and Methods] Forty healthy university students (mean age, 20.4 years) were classified into two groups by cognitive function score (HIGH and LOW), determined according to Trail Making Test performance and Stroop task processing time. We then assessed what factors were related to cognitive function by logistic regression analysis. Executive function was determined by brain blood flow using near-infrared spectroscopy during the Stroop task, and was then compared by physical activity levels (determined according to number of steps per hour). [Results] Full-scale Intelligence Quotient according to the 3rd Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale and number of steps per hour influenced cognitive function score, with odds ratios of 1.104 and 1.012, respectively. Oxy-hemoglobin concentrations in areas related to executive function during the Stroop task were significantly higher among those in the high physical activity group than among those in the low physical activity group. [Conclusion] The study revealed that Full-scale Intelligence Quotient and a number of steps per hour are factors associated with the cognitive functions in young adulthood. In addition, activity in execution function related area was found to be significantly higher in the high physical activity group than in the low physical activity group, suggesting the importance of physical activity for enhancing young adulthood cognitive functions.

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  • Sung-kwang Ju, Won-gyu Yoo
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 476-477
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
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    [Purpose] This study compared the activation of anterior gluteus medius fibers during general exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises. [Subjects and Methods] The study enrolled 15 healthy adults. The participants performed general hip abductor strengthening exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises; during both types of exercise, electromyography activity was recorded. [Results] Greater anterior gluteus medius fiber activation was observed during the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises compared with the general hip abductor strengthening exercises. The anterior gluteus medius fibers exhibited greater activity during pattern 2 exercises compared with any other type of exercise. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pattern 2 exercises can selectively activate anterior gluteus medius fibers.

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  • Ji-Sung You, You Lim Kim, Suk Min Lee
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 478-483
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
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    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of a standard transfer exercise program on the transfer quality and activities of daily living (ADL) in wheelchair-dependent spinal cord injury patients. [Subjects and Methods] We randomly divided 22 patients into 2 groups. During the intervention period, one group received treatment with both conventional physical therapy and a standard sitting pivot transfer exercise program (experimental group, n=12) and the other group was managed solely with conventional physical therapy (control group, n=10). The standard transfer exercise program comprised of an independent and a dependent program. Exercises were conducted 30 minutes daily, 3 times per week, over a period of 6 weeks. All subjects were tested using a transfer assessment instrument (TAI) and spinal cord independence measure (SCIM) before and after the intervention. [Results] Compared to the control group, the intervention group scored higher on both the transfer assessment instrument (TAI Part 1, Part 2, TAI total score) and spinal cord independence measure tests (SCIM mobility room and toilet score; SCIM total score). [Conclusion] In conclusion, the standard transfer exercise program is an effective tool which improves transfer quality and the ability of wheelchair-dependent spinal cord injury patients to carry out their ADLs.

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  • Yukako Okuno, Ryoichi Takahashi, Yoko Sewa, Hirotaka Ohse, Shigeyuki I ...
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 484-486
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] Continuous electrical stimulation of abdominal wall muscles is known to induce mild muscle fatigue. However, it is not clear whether this is also true for functional electrical stimulation delivered only during the expiratory phase of breathing. This study aimed to examine whether or not intermittent electrical stimulation delivered to abdominal wall muscles induces muscle fatigue. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were nine healthy adults. Abdominal electrical stimulation was applied for 1.5 seconds from the start of expiration and then turned off during inspiration. The electrodes were attached to both sides of the abdomen at the lower margin of the 12th rib. Abdominal electrical stimulation was delivered for 15 minutes with the subject in a seated position. Expiratory flow was measured during stimulus. Trunk flexor torque and electromyography activity were measured to evaluate abdominal muscle fatigue. [Results] The mean stimulation on/off ratio was 1:2.3. The declining rate of abdominal muscle torque was 61.1 ± 19.1% before stimulus and 56.5 ± 20.9% after stimulus, not significantly different. The declining rate of mean power frequency was 47.8 ± 11.7% before stimulus and 47.9 ± 10.2% after stimulus, not significantly different. [Conclusion] It was found that intermittent electrical stimulation to abdominal muscles synchronized with the expiratory would not induce muscle fatigue.

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  • Toshihiko Miura, Akiyoshi Takami, Misato Makino, Akira Ishikawa, Yuka ...
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 487-490
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] In Duchenne muscular dystrophy, it increases risks of difficulties of expectoration of secretion, asphyxia, aspiration pneumonia because of decreased cough function. The aim of this study is to prove that manually assisted coughing or mechanical insufflation-exsufflation prevents pulmonary complication and contribute to continue oral intake safely and continue rate of oral intake in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. [Subjects and Methods] We investigated the status of using ventilator, manually assisted coughing or mechanical insufflation-exsufflation, and oral intake or not. In addition, we inspected the frequency of fever (over 37 °C) needed antibiotics from medical records for index of respiratory tract infection, and compared with every period of using mechanical insufflation-exsufflation from respiratory evaluation on cough peak flow. [Results] Fifty-eight patients participated in this study. There were 45 Full-time noninvasive positive pressure ventilation patients. Forty-three in 45 Full-time noninvasive positive pressure ventilation patients (95.6%) avoided tracheostomy and continued noninvasive positive pressure ventilation because they continued oral intake without tracheal intubation due to the respiratory acute exacerbation by asphyxia or aspiration pneumonia. [Conclusion] Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients can continue oral intake safely while preventing pulmonary complication by using manually assisted coughing or mechanical insufflation-exsufflation.

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  • Jung-Myo Shim, Young-Ran Yeun, Hye-Young Kim, Sung-Joong Kim
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 491-494
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the effects of manual lymph drainage for abdomen on electroencephalography in subjects with psychological stress. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight subjects were randomly allocated to undergo a 20-min session of either manual lymph drainage or abdominal massage on a bed. [Results] Analysis of electroencephalograms from the manual lymph drainage group showed a significant increase in relaxation, manifested as an increase in average absolute, relative alpha activity and a decrease in relative gamma activity. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that the application of manual lymph drainage from the abdomen provides acute neural effects that increase relaxation in subjects with psychological stress.

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  • Je-hyeok Lee, Jong-duk Choi
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 495-497
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of upper extremity task training employing the bracing method on the trunk control and balance of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 46 stroke patients whose strokes had occurred six months or more prior to the study. The subjects were divided into two groups. One group underwent upper extremity task training with symmetric abdominal muscle contraction (bracing) applied. The other group simply underwent upper extremity task training, without bracing. [Results] The experimental group’s Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS) significantly increased after the intervention, whereas the control group did not see any significant difference. There was significant improvement in balance after the intervention in both the experimental group and the control group. According to the between-group comparisons, the improvements in the experimental group were significantly greater in the control group, except in the Postural Assessment Scale (PASS). [Conclusion] Based on the results of this study, upper extremity task exercises with symmetric abdominal muscle contraction, conducted as part of adult hemiplegic patients’ trunk stabilization exercises, can be applied to a diverse range of hemiplegic patients and implemented as an exercise program after discharge from hospital.

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  • Akihiro Tamura, Kiyokazu Akasaka, Takahiro Otsudo, Junya Shiozawa, Yuk ...
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 498-504
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] Fatigue alters lower extremity landing strategies and decreases the ability to attenuate impact during landing. The purpose of this study was to reveal the influence of fatigue on dynamic alignment and joint angular velocities in the lower extremities during a single leg landing. [Subjects and Methods] The 34 female college students were randomly assigned to either the fatigue or control group. The fatigue group performed single-leg drop vertical jumps before, and after, the fatigue protocol, which was performed using a bike ergometer. Lower extremity kinematic data were acquired using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. The ratio of each variable (%), for the pre-fatigue to post-fatigue protocols, were calculated to compare differences between each group. [Results] Peak hip and knee flexion angular velocities increased significantly in the fatigue group compared with the control group. Furthermore, hip flexion angular velocity increased significantly between each group at 40 milliseconds after initial ground contact. [Conclusion] Fatigue reduced the ability to attenuate impact by increasing angular velocities in the direction of hip and knee flexion during landings. These findings indicate a requirement to evaluate movement quality over time by measuring hip and knee flexion angular velocities in landings during fatigue conditions.

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  • Tae-Gyu An, Soo-Han Kim, Ko-Un Kim
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 505-507
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on depression and quality of life (QOL) in patients with stroke, by conducting conventional occupational therapy with and without tDCS on 20 patients each. [Subjects and Methods] The experimental group (N=20) received both tDCS and conventional occupational therapy, while the control group (N=20) received false tDCS and conventional occupational therapy. The treatment was conducted 20 times over a four-week period; each session was 30 minutes long. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered to score the depression levels in patients before and after the intervention, while the stroke-specific quality of life (SS-QOL) was measured to compare the QOL. [Result] Following the intervention, the patients in the experimental group showed a significant decrease in depression and an increase in the QOL. In contrast, the control group showed no significant changes in depression or QOL. Our findings indicate that tDCS decreased depression while increasing QOL in patients with stroke. [Conclusion] In other words, our study confirmed that the application of tDCS during stroke rehabilitation improves the depression symptoms and QOL in patients.

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  • Seung Hee Hyun, Young Mi Kim, Su Jin Park
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 508-510
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
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    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise on myocardial injury in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Two groups of rats were trained with either moderate- or high-intensity treadmill running for four weeks. Subsequently, the concentrations of cardiac troponin and the N-terminal of prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were examined following a single bout of prolonged intensive exercise (lasting 3 h). [Subjects and Methods] The study included 40 six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150–180 g each. The aerobic exercise group was divided into high-intensity (28 m/min) and moderate-intensity (15 m/min) subgroups. Both subgroups were trained for 35 min daily for six days per week (excluding Sunday) over a four-week period. Following training, the high- and moderate-intensity exercise groups and a nonexercise group performed one bout of prolonged treadmill exercise for 3 h at a speed of 15 m/min. [Results] The cardiac troponin and NT-proBNP levels differed significantly between the groups. [Conclusion] The exercise groups showed lower levels of cardiac troponin and NT-proBNP than the nonexercise group after the bout of prolonged intensive exercise.

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  • Koji Iwamoto, Masafumi Mizukami, Yasutsugu Asakawa, Yusuke Endo, Yuich ...
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 511-514
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] Friction massage (friction) of the popliteal fossa is provided for the purpose of relieving pain related to circulatory disorders by improving venous flow in the lower legs. The purpose of this study is to verify the effects of enhancing the venous flow based on measuring the blood flow velocity of the popliteal vein before and after providing friction to the patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen healthy male university students participated in the study. The Doppler ultrasonography (DU) was used to measure the blood flow velocity of the popliteal vein, in order to verify the effects of enhancing the venous flow by comparing the measured values before and after a friction massage. [Results] The result of comparing the blood flow velocity before and after providing friction showed that there was a significant increase after friction. [Conclusion] This study proved that friction to the popliteal fossa is effectively enhances venous flow by increasing the blood flow velocity in the popliteal vein.

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  • Miki Tagami, Yukako Okuno, Tadamitsu Matsuda, Kenta Kawamura, Ryosuke ...
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 515-518
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
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    [Purpose] Normal values for respiratory muscle pressures during development in Japanese children have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate respiratory muscle pressures in Japanese children aged 3–12 years. [Subjects and Methods] We measured respiratory muscle pressure values using a manovacuometer without a nose clip, with subjects in a sitting position. Data were collected for ages 3–6 (Group I: 68 subjects), 7–9 (Group II: 86 subjects), and 10–12 (Group III: 64 subjects) years. [Results] The values for respiratory muscle pressures in children were significantly higher with age in both sexes, and were higher in boys than in girls. Correlation coefficients were significant at values of 0.279 to 0.471 for each gender relationship between maximal respiratory pressure and age, height, and weight, respectively. [Conclusion] In this study, we showed pediatric respiratory muscle pressure reference value for each age. In the present study, values for respiratory muscle pressures were lower than Brazilian studies. This suggests that differences in respiratory muscle pressures vary with ethnicity.

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  • Shinya Kishi, Munehito Yoshida
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 519-522
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
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    [Purpose] Elbow injury in male adult kendo players was investigated and examined in order to obtain an indicator of prophylaxis of injury. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 22 male adult kendo players aged 25 to 60 years old, and presence or absence of pain, range of motion, and muscle strength in the elbow joints were investigated. In addition, among athletes with limited range of motion (ROM) in the elbow joints, three athletes who had received an explanation and had provided informed consent underwent CT, and the images were examined. [Result] As a result, posterior pain and decreased range of extension motion in the right elbow were noted in 86% of the subjects, and the CT images showed free bone fragments and osteophytes in the olecranon. Also, characteristics were noted that extension muscle strength was stronger than flexion muscle strength in elbow muscle strength. [Conclusion] Based on these results, characteristic disorders in male adult kendo players include an impingement disorder in the posterior region of the right elbow.

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  • Ho Jeong Lee, Young Mi Kim, Dong Kyu Lee
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 523-526
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of action observation training and mirror therapy to improve on balance and gait function of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: The action observation training with activity group practiced additional action observation training with activity for three 30-minute session for six weeks (n=12). The mirror therapy with activity group practiced additional mirror therapy with activity for three 30-minute sessions for six weeks (n=11). The only action observation training group practiced additional action observation training for three 30-minute sessions for weeks (n=12). All groups received conventional therapy for five 60-minute sessions over a six-week period. [Results] There were significant improvements in balance and gait function. The action observation training with activity group significantly improved subjects’ static balance. The action observation training with activity group and the mirror therapy with activity group significantly improved subjects’ gait ability. [Conclusion] The activation of mirror neurons combined with a conventional stroke physiotherapy program enhances lower-extremity motor recovery and motor functioning in stroke patients.

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  • Dong-jin Lee, Yeon-seop Lee, Hyun-jin Kim, Tae-hwa Seo
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 527-530
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to investigate the effect of exercise training using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on breathing in patients with chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty chronic stroke patients who do not show abnormal response to electric stimulation were enrolled in this study and each 15 subjects were randomized either into the study group and the sham-controlled group. The subjects performed diaphragmatic breathing exercise for 20 minutes while tDCS device was attached to them (for study group, the device was on while for the sham-controlled group, the device was turned off 30 seconds later) [Results] The results of FVC, FEF1 and FEV1/FVC in the study group and those of FVC and FEV1 in the sham-controlled group were significantly increased after the breathing exercise. The independent comparison result between the groups showed that the breathing performance of study group significantly improved based on the results of FVC and FEV1. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the results of this study confirmed that breathing exercise effectively improved FVC and FEV1 in chronic stroke patients. Also, the breathing exercise using tDCS was more effective in improving FVC and FEV1.

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  • Keun-Su Lee, Joon-Hee Lee
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 531-535
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] This study evaluated joint mobilization and therapeutic exercise applied to the cervical spine and upper thoracic spine for functional impairment caused by chronic neck pain. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen study subjects were randomly assigned to two groups of nine people each. Therapeutic exercise only was applied to the cervical and upper thoracic spine for Group I, while both therapeutic exercise and joint mobilization were applied to Group II. The visual analog scale, neck disability index, active cervical range of motion, static balance capacity, and muscle tone were assessed with a pre-test. The intervention was carried out for 60 minutes a day, three times a week, for two weeks for each group, followed by a post-test using the same protocol as the pre-test. [Results] The visual analog scale, neck disability index, and active cervical range of motion improved significantly in both groups. Group II improved significantly more on right lateral flexion and rightward rotation. Muscle tone improved significantly in the upper trapezius in both groups. [Conclusion] The joint mobilization and therapeutic exercise for functional impairments caused by chronic neck pain had a significant effect on several types of functional impairment.

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  • Ji-Hyun Lee, Sangyong Lee, SeokJoo Choi, Yoon-Hee Choi, Kwansub Lee
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 536-538
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on the pain and function of patients with degenerative knee arthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with degenerative knee arthritis were divided into a conservative physical therapy group (n=10) and an extracorporeal shock wave therapy group (n=10). Both groups received general conservative physical therapy, and the extracorporeal shock wave therapy was additionally treated with extracorporeal shock wave therapy after receiving conservative physical therapy. Both groups were treated three times a week over a four-week period. The visual analogue scale was used to evaluate pain in the knee joints of the subjects, and the Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index was used to evaluate the function of the subjects. [Results] The comparison of the visual analogue scale and Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores within each group before and after the treatment showed statistically significant declines in scores in both the conservative physical therapy group and extracorporeal shock wave therapy group. A group comparison after the treatment showed statistically significant differences in these scores in the extracorporeal shock wave therapy group and the conservative physical therapy group. [Conclusion] extracorporeal shock wave therapy may be a useful nonsurgical intervention for reducing the pain of patients with degenerative knee arthritis and improving these patients’ function.

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  • Ji-Yeon Lee, Dong-Yeop Lee, Ji-Heon Hong, Jae-Ho Yu, Jin Seop Kim
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 539-542
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of pelvic diagonal movements, made with and without resistance, on the thickness of lumbar multifidus muscles. [Subjects and Methods] Participants in this study were healthy subjects who had no musculoskeletal disorders or lumbar-related pain. Participants were positioned on their side and instructed to lie with their hip flexor at 40 degrees. Ultrasonography was used for measurement, and the values of two calculations were averaged. [Results] The thickness of ipsilateral lumbar multifidus muscles showed a significant difference following the exercise of pelvic diagonal movements. The results of anterior elevation movements and posterior depression movements also demonstrated significant difference. There was no significant difference in lumbar multifidus muscles thickness between movements made with and without resistance. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that pelvic diagonal movements can be an effective method to promote muscular activation of the ipsilateral multifidus. Furthermore, researchers have concluded that resistance is not required during pelvic diagonal movements to selectively activate the core muscles.

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  • KyeongSoo Lee, EunJung Chung, Byoung-Hee Lee
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 543-547
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of asymmetry in infants with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) according to the age when treatment was started. [Subjects and Methods] 102 infant CMT patients under the age of 6 months were selected. The subjects were divided into a group that started treatment before six weeks (n=55) and a group that started treatment after six weeks (n=47). Asymmety was evaluated by determining the difference in the thickness of the two sternocleidomastoid muscles (DTSM) using ultrasonography, head tilt (HT) based on a physical examination, and the torticollis overall assessment (TOA). Patients received ultrasound and massage therapy for 30 minutes, in conjunction with passive stretching exercises, 3 times a week. [Results] Following the intervention, the DTSM, HT and TOA showed significant differences in the two groups. The DTSM of the group that started treatment before six weeks was significantly better than that of the group that started treatment after six weeks. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that early intervention is more effective than later intervention.

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Review Article
  • Shang-Yu Yang, Chung-Ying Lin, Ya-Chen Lee, Jer-Hao Chang
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 548-555
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] This study investigated whether the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure is a suitable outcome measure for assessing patients with stroke in research and clinical settings. [Subjects and Methods] The study included into two parts: (1) an investigation of the reliability and validity of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure for patients with stroke and (2) an exploration of Canadian Occupational Performance Measure results in randomized controlled trials of patients with stroke. For this review, the study searched the MEDLINE, PubMed, and CINAHL Plus with Full Text databases for articles published before September 2015. [Results] Finally, three eligible articles were collected in part 1, and ten randomized controlled trials studies were collected in part 2. The findings of part 1 revealed that the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure had efficient test–retest reliability, however, the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure revealed weak associations with other assessment tools such as Barthel Index used for patients with stroke. Six of the randomized controlled trials studies used the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure as a primary outcome and two as a secondary outcome, while the other two as a goal-setting instrument. [Conclusion] This review indicates that the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure is appropriate for clinicians, including physiotherapists, in assessing outcome for patients with stroke. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure can assist patients in identifying their outcome performance and provide therapists with directions on interventions.

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Case Study
  • Doo-Ho Lee, Ji-Su Park, Seung-Woong Lee, Jong-Bae Choi
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 556-557
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of dysphagia therapy in an old man with difficulty swallowing in the oral and pharyngeal phases. [Subjects and Methods] The subject was a 72-year-old man with no history of neurological disorders. He was admitted to local hospital because of the complaint of swallowing difficulty. The interventions performed were electrical stimulation and conventional dysphagia therapy. We assessed the tongue and lip muscle strengths. Swallowing function was evaluated by using the videofluoroscopic dysphagia and penetration-aspiration scales. [Results] After the intervention, the tongue and lip muscle strengths increased from 35 to 39 kPa and from 18 to 23 kPa, respectively. Moreover, the oral and pharyngeal phases of the videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale were improved. Furthermore, aspiration decreased from 4 to 2 points in the penetration-aspiration scale. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that electrical stimulation and conventional dysphagia therapy were effective in improving the swallowing function in an elderly individual with dysphagia.

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  • Mitsuaki Ishii, Hideaki Mashimo
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 558-562
    Published: 2017
    Released: March 22, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose] In patients with parkinsonism, the precise mechanism of impaired voluntary cough remains poorly understood. This study used the flow–volume curve to clarify whether disordered voluntary cough reflects the freezing phenomenon. [Subjects and Methods] Case 1 was a 58-year-old female who had been suffering from progressive supranuclear palsy-pure akinesia with gait freezing. Case 2 was a 59-year-old female who had advanced juvenile parkinsonism. The subjects were asked to take a deep inspiration to the total lung capacity and then cough more than five times through the face mask into the spirometer without intervening inspirations between the coughing efforts. [Results] Hesitation in cough initiation (case 2), decreased peak cough flow (case 1), and rounding of the first spike (cases 1 and 2) were observed. In addition, movements of the spike wave at a lower lung volume became progressively smaller and faster (cases 1 and 2). [Conclusion] These clinical manifestations in our patients are similar to those observed in the freezing phenomenon. However, to date, the concept of cough freezing has been underrecognized in clinical practice. From the present study, it could be hypothesized that the freezing phenomenon can occur in voluntary cough as well as in gait, speech, and writing.

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