[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of transcutaneous xenon light irradiation around the stellate ganglion on autonomic functions. [Subjects] Thirty healthy volunteers were the subjects. [Methods] The subjects underwent two experimental sessions: 1) 10-minute xenon light irradiation to the bilateral stellate ganglions in a comfortable supine position (Xe-LISG); and 2) 10-minute rest in the same position as Xe-LISG (control). The low frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz) power (LF) and ratio of LF to the high frequency (0.15-0.40 Hz) power (LF/HF) obtained from power spectral analysis of R-R intervals and skin temperatures of the upper and lower extremities (UE and LE) were examined. [Results] Although no significant changes of HF and LF/HF were observed before and after the control, HF after Xe-LISG was significantly increased compared with that before Xe-LISG, and LF/HF after Xe-LISG was significantly decreased compared with that before Xe-LISG. Additionally, although the UE skin temperature during Xe-LISG tended to be higher than that during the control, the LE skin temperature during Xe-LISG tended to be lower than that during the control. [Conclusion] These results suggest that Xe-LISG inhibits sympathetic activity and induces not only an increase in the UE skin blood flow, but also a decrease in the LE skin blood flow.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of balance function in children with developmental disorders (DD). [Subjects] Participants in the experiment were 9 normal children and 9 children with DD, aged 5 to 6. [Methods] The stability of the children's centers of gravity was measured during 30 seconds of static standing, with their eyes both open and closed. [Results] When eyes were closed, children with DD showed significantly greater values of environmental area (EA) and root mean square (RMS) than normal children. In contrast, no difference was observed when eyes were open. When the eyes of children with DD were closed, they showed significantly greater EA and RMS than when their eyes were open. In contrast, no such differences were observed among normal children. Although children with DD did not show deficiency in vestibular and somatosensory systems, the periphery of their center of gravity increased when they could not use visual feedback. [Conclusion] It can be inferred that, compared to normal children, children with DD experience difficulty with postural control without their vision, and that compared to normal children of the same age, their postural control is underdeveloped since they are dependent on vision for postural control.
[Purpose] A 6-year-and-7-month prospective survey was performed to evaluate long-term effects of low-frequency home-visit rehabilitation performed by physiotherapists in cooperation with health care or welfare workers on basic activities of daily living (ADL) by disabled persons in rehabilitation-deficient areas. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 69 home-dwelling disabled persons in 5 towns or villages in northeastern Japan. Home-visit rehabilitation was performed on a monthly basis for 54 of them (intervention group: mean age=69.3 years) with the cooperation of physiotherapists and other health care/welfare workers. [Results] During the intervention period (mean 13.1-month), the Barthel Index improved significantly for the intervention compared with the reference group (15 persons who did not receive home-visit rehabilitation: mean age=69.6 years), with a multivariable odds ratio of 6.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.6-24.5). However, during the follow-up period (mean 44.2-month) after the intervention, the Barthel Index for the intervention group returned to nearly the baseline level. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that home-visit rehabilitation performed jointly by physiotherapist and other professionals, even with low frequency, is effective for improving the ADL independence by the disabled in rehabilitation-deficient areas, as well as the need for measures to prevent a decline in ADL after the end of intervention.
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of upper extremity-oriented intensive one-sided and double-sided dribbling on the postures of basketball playing children during the period of their basic training. [Subjects] Forty male children registered for a summer basketball training course held in Isparta, Turkey, voluntarily participated in the study. [Methods] The children were formed into two equal groups: a single dribbling group, and a double dribbling group. Both groups were subject to daily training for 1.5 hours during a period of 10 weeks. Anterior and lateral posture were analysed before and after the training period. Symmetrical differences were studied in the anterior analysis, while angular ones were examined in the lateral one. [Results] Before the training period, no significant differences were found between the two groups in either the anterior or lateral posture tests (p>0.05). Following the training, however, a significant difference with regard to shoulder and chest regions was observed between the groups in the anterior analysis (p<0.05). On the other hand, there was no significant difference in the post-training lateral test results (p>0.05). [Conclusion] Intensive one-sided dribbling training was thus observed to be effective in the asymmetrical formation of the dominant one-sided shoulder and chest regions of basketball playing children. In accordance with these data, rather than one-sided dribbling exercises, double-sided dribbling ones are recommended, because this can be said to be more beneficial for the children's posture.
[Purpose] To investigate the relationship between errors in perceiving postural limits and falls in hospitalized hemiplegic patients. [Subjects] Sixty hemiplegic inpatients were included in this study. [Methods] Error in perceiving postural limits was defined as the difference between the estimated maximum reach and actual reach distances, and its relationship to falls during three months of hospitalization was investigated. The other measurements included Functional Ambulation Category, Brunnstrom's recovery stage, sensory disturbance, fear of falling, and the Japanese version of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-J). [Results] For the multiple fall group, the error in estimated distance (EED) was significantly greater than that for the zero/single fall group (p<0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that EED and MADRS-J scores were correlated with multiple falls. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve for EED, the cut-off value for the multiple fall group was 6.3 cm (sensitivity: 80%, specificity: 77.8%). Using this value, the likelihood ratio and risk ratio for multiple falls was 3.6 and 6.9 (95% confidence interval: 2.2-21.8), respectively. [Conclusion] These results suggest that assessing error in perceiving postural limits by EED of hemiplegic patients is one method for identifying individuals at high risk of fall.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate whether using a belt to restrain a hand-held dynamometer improves reliability of isometric leg muscle strength measurements in healthy subjects. [Subjects] Twenty to 44 healthy subjects participated in the test. [Methods] Two raters, one man and one woman, used a hand-held dynamometer with or without a restraining belt to measure the isometric strengths of the following muscle groups: flexors, extensors, abductors, adductors, internal rotators and external rotators of the hip; flexors and extensors of the knee; and dorsiflexors and plantar flexors of the ankle. [Results] The intraclass correlation coefficient, used to describe interrater agreement, ranged from 0.97 to 0.99 with the belt and from 0.21 to 0.88 without the belt. Pearson's correlation coefficient for measurements with versus without the belt ranged from 0.61 to 0.95 for the man and from 0.31 to 0.87 for the woman. [Conclusion] The interrater reliability of isometric leg muscle strength measurements was improved by use of a belt to restrain the hand-held dynamometer.
[Purpose] A questionnaire survey on e-learning in Japanese physical therapy schools was conducted in order to examine the efficiency and potential of the ICT-supported education by comparing the results with general Japanese higher education institutions. [Subjects and Methods] The questionnaire prepared by NIME in 2006 for higher education institutions was revised, and posted to 228 physical therapy schools in Japan (69 universities and 159 technical schools). [Results] Of all the questionnaires, 53.6% (37/69) and 42.8% (68/159) were returned from the universities and technical schools, respectively. Many items in the questionnaire showed similar tendencies to the results of the NIME's survey. However, the "ascertainment of the learning effect of e-learning" showed a different tendency from general Japanese higher education institutions (p = 0.000). [Conclusion] Physical therapy schools less frequently ascertain the learning effect of e-learning than general Japanese higher education institutions. The fact suggests that e-learning may not have been adapted by physical therapy education due to factors deemed unsuitable for e-learning such as the school capacity issues and technique-centered education.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of the center of pressure (COP) trace in fall-prone older adults during obstacle crossing before and after Tai Chi exercise. [Subjects] Fifty-two fall-prone older adults participated in either a 12-week intervention of Tai Chi exercise or in a health education program. [Methods] The subjects were pre- and post-tested in a task in which they were asked to step over an obstacle from a quiet stance. The subjects were divided into two groups (the experimental group and the control group). Participants in the experimental group received Tai Chi exercise emphasizing dynamic weight shifting three times weekly. Participants in the control group met for one-hour weekly and listened to lectures about health promotion. Performance was assessed by recording the changes in the displacement of the COP in the anteroposterior (A-P) and mediolateral (M-L) directions using a force platform. [Results] The experimental group of subjects significantly increased A-P and M-L displacement of the COP after Tai Chi exercise (p<0.05). [Conclusion] This study shows that participation in Tai Chi exercise increased the magnitude of the A-P and M-L displacement of the COP, thereby improving the ability of older adults to generate momentum to initiate gait.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of personal factors in the social Activities and Participation of patients with stroke in view of moderation and mediation models. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 85 patients with stroke (30 currently admitted to a hospital, 33 to an institute facility, and 22 at home). Their data were examined through multiple regression analysis with interaction factor (for moderation models) and through path analysis (for mediation models) in order to reveal how personal factors are working in connection with Activities and Participation to body function, and between Activities and Participation. The hypothesized moderators were Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Apathy Scale and General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) for Age, Gender and Educational level, and as the mediators, SDS, Apathy Scale and GSES were supposed. [Results] All the examined personal factors were found to function as moderators, but no personal factors were found to act as mediators. [Conclusion] We showed that personal factors influence to Activities and Participation not only by themselves but also in interrelation with other factors.
[Purpose] This research considered a practice program consisting of the use of the Chaining Method in walking with a simulated prosthetic femur; then studied the influence this practice exerts on skills in walking with a prosthetic leg. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 able-bodied people who had no experience of walking with a simulated artificial leg, who were divided randomly into two groups. The intervention group practiced using the Chaining Method, while the control group practiced after having been given the entire instructions all at once, each group for ten minutes. Their tasks were to walk wearing a simulated prosthetic femur. [Results] Significant differences were found between the two groups in the amount of time taken to walk before and after practice, the number of times the knee was bent, and the number of times the non-prosthetic leg strayed from the path. Also, comparing the two groups just after practice, the intervention group showed the benefit of intervention in the same evaluation items, compared to the control group. [Conclusions] The Chaining Method entails simplifying the targeted movements by segmenting them.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the respiratory function and respiratory muscle strength in the different body positions in order to find the posture in which it is easiest to cough up secretions or endotracheal aspirate. [Subjects] Fifteen non-smoking healthy women participated. All subjects gave their written consent to the study. [Methods] We measured respiratory muscle strength and respiratory function in three postures: sitting, supine, and 45 degree rotative prone. [Results] Vital capacity, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, and peak expiratory flow were marginally lower in 45 degree rotative prone. Percent of forced expiratory volume in one second was significantly lower in supine compared with sitting (p<0.05). [Conclusion] Our results suggest that 45 degree rotative prone is effective for coughing up secretions and endotracheal aspirate as well as the sitting position in young female subjects.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine how younger and older adults modulate the center of pressure (COP) trajectory in the anteroposterior (A-P) and mediolateral (M-L) directions while stepping over an obstacle and during gait initiation (GI). [Subjects] Fifteen community-dwelling healthy older adults and fifteen healthy younger adults volunteered to participate in this study. [Methods] Subjects initiated gait or stepped over an obstacle at a self-paced speed with the right limb, in response to auditory cues. Performance was assessed by recording changes in the displacement of the COP in the A-P and M-L directions using two force plates. [Results] For combined test conditions, the A-P and M-L displacements of the COP in the older adults were significantly lower than the A-P and M-L displacements of the COP in the younger adults (p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences between GI and stepping conditions for the COP shift (p > 0.05). [Conclusion] These findings suggest that a reduction in the magnitude of the COP shift with obstacle avoidance diminishes the ability of older adults to generate forward momentum and to maintain the lateral stability that is highly related to falls.
[Purpose] We examined mRNA levels of MyoD and myogenin in rat skeletal muscle after a single session of treadmill running. [Subjects] A total of 26 male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 4 weeks were used in this study. [Methods] Rats were run on a 16° decline for 30 min. Treadmill speeds were 0, 16, 20, 24 and 28 m/min. At 72 h post-exercise, soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were extracted. The expression of MyoD and myogenin mRNA were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative RT-PCR. [Results] MyoD and myogenin mRNA expressions were detected in all groups. Significant differences in myogenin levels were apparent in SOL between 16 m/min and 28 m/min. MyoD levels in SOL at 16, 24, 28 m/min were lower, while myogenin levels at 20, 24 and 28 m/min were higher, when compared with the 0 m/min group, although significant differences were not seen. [Conclusion] These results suggest that a single session of exercise has little effect on proliferation of satellite cells, or myotube production.
[Purpose] Post-stroke treatment regimens include symmetrical movement,reciprocal movement and alternating movement which may be performed accordingly as the patients progress. However, as far as the authors know, there are no reports regarding the differences in neural circuitry involved in each movement. [Subjects and Methods] We analyzed the brain activity of 23 right-handed healthy subjects when performing three different bimanual movements using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [Results] Performance of the bimanual tasks showed significant bilateral activation in the sensorimotor area (SMC) under all 3 conditions, the lowest increase in activation was under the alternating condition, with more activation in the right SMC than in the left. Bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA) activated during performance under all 3 conditions. In particular, under alternating condition, significant increase of activation was observed in bilateral SMA. Bilateral premotor area and thalamus were activated, significant increases in activation were observed in the right hemisphere. Bilateral cerebellum showed activation under symmetrical and alternating conditions but not under the condition of reciprocal hand grasps, significant increases in activation were observed in the right. [Conclusion] Moreover, analysis of the brain activity associated with the three bimanual movements suggested involvement of different circuits of subcortical nerve base structures, respective to the tasks. It is considered that the findings may be used as reference data concerning which of the bilateral movements should be employed in rehabilitation according to the brain injury.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the radiographic stages of knee osteoarthritis and measurements of symptoms. [Subjects] One hundred eighty-three patients with radiographs of varying degrees of osteoarthritis of the knee and 35 healthy subjects with no osteoarthritis of the knee were assessed. [Methods] The participants were assessed using the Hospital for Special Surgery score, pain score, sit-to-stand test, manual muscle test, goniometry and the Kellgren-Lawrence score. [Results] While pain scores of grades I and II in the Kellgren-Lawrence score were similar to each other, they were less than the pain scores of grades III and IV. Muscle strength, function scores and range of motion of grades I and II were similar and they were also higher than the values of grades III and IV. Pain scores of grades III and IV were similar whereas muscle strength, range of motion and function scores of grade IV were lower than those of grade III. While there was no difference between the functional levels of grade II and III, they were both lower than the values of grade I but higher than the values of grade IV. [Conclusion] The radiological findings did not show very strong relationships with other symptoms and signs of the disease in osteoarthritic patients.