[Purpose] To evaluate mobility of the sacroiliac joint and plantar pressure changes. [Participants and Methods] This was an analytical study comprised of 300 participants, using a functional kinetic evaluation involving the test of standing flexion (SFT), the test of Downing, the test of Gillet, and the analysis of baropodometry. [Results] There was an association between mobility of the sacroiliac joint and the standing center of gravity. However, the mobility of this joint was not associated with plantar pressure and the plantar contact area. [Conclusion] These data suggest that sacroiliac mobility is linked to the center of gravity. This connection may precede sacroiliac dysfunction and may help to improve the accuracy of the tests.
[Purpose] We aimed to determine the relationship between gait speed and diaphragm thickness in community-residing patients with hemiplegia caused by cerebrovascular accidents. [Participants and Methods] We recruited 11 elderly participants (six male and five female, mean age 71.1 ± 13.6 years) from an outpatient rehabilitation unit. The inclusion criteria were as follows: patients with hemiplegia caused by cerebrovascular accidents, those able to walk without assistance, and those able to understand our instructions. We measured the diaphragm thickness on both the paretic and non-paretic sides in each participant during maximum exhalation and inhalation during three laboured breaths by ultrasonography with a 7.5-MHz linear scanner. The liner scanner was placed on the eighth or ninth rib between the anterior and middle axillary lines. And their gait speed was measured during a 10 m walk. [Results] There was a strong positive correlation between gait speed and the ratio of diaphragm thickness between the paretic and the non-paretic sides during maximal inspiration. The other measured parameters did not show significant correlation with gait speed. [Conclusion] The symmetrical thickness of the diaphragm is a key factor in increasing gait speed in patients with hemiplegia. These findings may contribute to the development of trunk muscle strength-training programs that improve trunk function and gait speed in patients with hemiplegia.
[Purpose] To help patients who had a stroke resume automobile driving, we evaluated their ability to recognize three-dimensional space like that experienced in actual driving situations, with a focus on sensing car width. [Participants and Methods] Seven patients who had a stroke and 29 healthy adults participated in the study. Three 50-cm-wide chairs and 2 panels, 3 m apart, were placed 9 m from the chair in which the participant sat. One panel was fixed and the other panel could be moved toward the fixed panel in a horizontal direction. The participants were asked to signal when they believed that the width of the chair was the same as the space between the panels. [Results] In the simulation of driving a real car, the mean error in judging distance was 13.2 ± 10.4 cm for the Healthy group and that of the Stroke group was two times greater than that of the Healthy group. [Conclusion] These findings show that spatial recognition cannot be evaluated using paper-based two-dimensional higher brain function tests. To help patients who had a stroke resume driving requires evaluation of three-dimensional spatial recognition ability under circumstances that simulate actual driving situations.
[Purpose] We followed-up patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR) for 2 years to assess the prognosis of rotator cuff tears and compared the outcomes of the patients with and without re-rupture. We also examined the usefulness of Shoulder36, a self-assessment tool, for assessing the long-term prognosis in patients undergoing ARCR. [Participants and Methods] We included 28 patients who received occupational therapy pre- and post-ARCR between April 2012 and August 2015 and categorized them based on the occurrence of re-rupture. We followed-up on their prognoses for 2 years using physical examination and Shoulder36 assessment. [Results] Re-rupture occurred in five patients within 3 months of treatment. During the 2 year follow-up, the control group showed a significant improvement in pain and bi-directional active range of motion during physical assessment and in five out of six domains during Shoulder36 assessment. In contrast, the re-rupture group showed significant differences for only three domains of the Shoulder36 assessment twelve months after surgery. [Conclusion] We confirmed the long-term functional improvement and maintenance in the re-rupture group, suggesting that continued rehabilitation, compensatory movements, and detailed guidance on daily life activities are required for patients after ARCR. Furthermore, Shoulder36 can be useful for assessing the prognosis of patients with and without re-rupture.
[Purpose] This study examined the effect of motor functioning, cognitive functioning, and activities of daily living on improvements in care need levels of older adults requiring low-level care at baseline in Japan’s Long-Term Care Insurance system. We aimed to link our findings to a proposal for effective measures toward improving care need levels. [Participants and Methods] This retrospective cohort study included 11,585 individuals aged 65 years and above who received personal care and used day-care services continuously for two or more years starting from the baseline assessment. Participants showing an improvement in their care need level from baseline to two years were included in the improved group, and those who maintained or declined from the baseline level were included in the maintained/deteriorated group. [Results] The mental status questionnaire and sub-scores for the Functional Independence Measure, including those for self-care, continence, and social cognition, were significantly correlated with improvements in care need levels. [Conclusion] Conducting a detailed evaluation of these factors is important for gauging the progress of the care need levels of older adults.In addition, it is important for physiotherapists to provide non-rehabilitation professionals with advice and guidance on their assessment methods and remedies.
[Purpose] We examined the effects of trunk anterior tilt angle (TA) and knee flexion angle (KA) on lower limb muscle activity. [Participants and Methods] Twenty-eight healthy male participants (age, 24.7 ± 4.7 years) performed nine standing tasks with different TA and KA. The participants were instructed to remain still during each task. The nine standing tasks were randomly performed while measurements of muscle activity were obtained for seven muscles: gluteus maximus (GMAX), medial hamstrings (MH), lateral hamstrings (LH), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and soleus (SOL). The activities of these muscles were normalized using isometric grade 3 of the manual muscle testing (isoMMT3). The intra-rater reliability for the mean values of the muscle activities measured with the isoMMT3 (intra-class correlation coefficient with 95% confidence interval) was confirmed using equation ICC (1,3). [Results] GMAX, MH, LH, RF, and MG were affected by both TA and KA, whereas VL was affected by KA, and SOL was affected by TA. [Conclusion] Our findings may facilitate a better understanding of the changes in muscle activity of the lower limb muscles due to differences in TA and KA.
[Purpose] A strong correlation exists between low physical activity and the prognosis of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The interaction between psychological factors and low physical activity remains unclear in patients with COPD. Here, we investigated the impact of the health locus of control (HLOC) on the response to an education program in patients with COPD. [Participants and Methods] We assessed the physical activities and HLOC in participants with COPD before and after a five-month education program. We assessed physical activity using the Japanese version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). We evaluated the HLOC using the Japanese version of the HLOC scales. We provided an identical educational program to all participants after the initial evaluation. [Results] The total activity and walking scores were significantly elevated after the intervention. We observed a significant negative correlation between the IPAQ Total score after the intervention and the supernatural HLOC. We also observed significant negative correlations between the IPAQ Vigorous score after the intervention and Family HLOC and Chance HLOC. [Conclusion] The response of patients with COPD to self-care educational programs was influenced by the HLOC.
[Purpose] The characteristics of neck and shoulder pain (NSP) in different age populations have not been sufficiently examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare and verify the cervicothoracic spinal alignment and neck flexor muscle endurance of young and older adult females with and without NSP. [Participants and Methods] We assessed 72 female participants (39 young participants, 33 elderly participants, 43 NSP, 29 non-NSP) aged 18–82 years who were recruited for this study. Cervicothoracic spinal alignment measurements were obtained with forward head alignment (FHA) along with the upper thoracic angle. The neck flexor endurance test was performed. [Results] There were no significant age-by-group interactions for any of the assessment variables. However, the upper thoracic angle and neck flexor muscle endurance showed significant effects in the groups. Age also had significant effects on FHA and upper thoracic angle. [Conclusion] These results suggested that the neck flexor muscle endurance was more appropriate as an evaluation tool for older adult females with NSP. It was also suggested that the cervical flexor muscle endurance and upper thoracic angle were more appropriate as evaluation tools for young adult females with NSP.
[Purpose] To develop a quantitative motion analysis software specific to boxing (Fist Tactics Support) and to verify its effectiveness based on the percentage of hits that land on the participants. [Participants and Methods] A total of 24 male professional boxers were divided into two groups: those who used Fist Tactics Support to analyze fight videos and instituted training changes based on the results (Fist Tactics Support group, 12 participants) and those who did not (control group, 12 participants). The overall percentage of hits that landed on the participants in the fights was compared between the two groups and between pre- and post-intervention. [Results] There were no significant differences between the two groups; however, the percentage of hits that landed on the boxers of the Fist Tactics Support group was significantly lower at post-intervention than at pre-intervention. [Conclusion] The use of scientific analysis results in boxing may facilitate the primary prevention of sports injuries.
[Purpose] Hybrid Assistive Limb® (HAL; Cyberdyne, Tsukuba, Japan) is a wearable robot that assists patients based on their voluntary movements. We report gait training with HAL after botulinum toxin treatment for spasticity of the lower limb in cerebral palsy (CP). [Participant and Methods] The participant was a 36 year-old male with spastic diplegia due to periventricular leukomalacia, with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level II. HAL training was performed in 20-minute sessions (3 sessions/week for 4 weeks). The outcome measures were range of motion, spasticity, walking ability, muscle strength, gross motor function measure (GMFM), Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), and Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory measured before, immediately after, and one, two, and three months after HAL training. [Results] No adverse events were observed during training. After the HAL intervention, gait speed, step length, cadence, 6-min walking distance (6MD), knee extension strength, GMFM, and COPM increased, and Physiological Cost Index declined. Three months post-intervention, gait speed, step length, cadence, 6MD, and GMFM remained higher than those observed within the first two months. [Conclusion] Gait training with HAL can be a safe and feasible method for patients with CP who undergo botulinum toxin treatment to improve walking ability and motor function.