The plasma confinement in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror is studied. The mirror confinement is much improved owing to the potential confinement. The high density plasma confinement was recently attained. Relations between confinement time and confining potential on the plasma density have been obtained in the high density region.
The advantages of working in a microgravity (μg) environment are the lack of gas or liquid mass transfer by convection, the clearly apparent surface tension of liquids, the homogeneous mixing of substances with different specific gravity, and ease of containerless processing. Spherical semiconductor single crystals such as InSb and Ge, nano-materials of SiGe and β-FeSi2 and materials with controlled structure such as magnetostrictive materials, TbFe2 and (Tb0.3Dy0.7)Fe2-X, could be synthesized by containerless solidification, splat solidification from homogeneous melts and unidirectional solidification in magnetic fields in microgravity, respectively.
New energy vehicles like Hybrid Electric Vehicle and Fuel Cell Vehicle are expected for the reduction of CO2 emission. Secondary batteries for HEV and functional materials such as platinum catalyst, polymer electrolyte, or hydrogen storage for FCV are key factors to dominate their vehicle performances. The current status of these technologies are reviewed and discussed.
Current situation of therapeutic and diagnostic equipments and their clinical aspects are described. Topics of clinical applications and expected status of regenerative and gene engineering are also reviewed. Contributions of new clinical technology and several low invasive medical equipments are discussed for medical care system in incoming era.
Wearable oxygen and conductimetric sensors were constructed by microfabrication techniques for monitoring biochemical substances. The wearable oxygen sensor (thickness 84μm) was calibrated against dissolved oxygen from 0 to 8.0mg/l, and could be used to monitor the transcutaneous oxygen pressure by applying onto the forearm skin surface. Tear fluid conductivity was possible to be measured by applying the wearable sensor to the human subject's temporal lower cul-de-sac, thus evaluating electrolyte concentration and turnover rate in tear for normal, healthy volunteers and dry-eye patients.
The water proton chemical shift observed in magnetic resonance is a measure of internal body temperature. The phase mapping method using this parameter has yielded a practical tool of non-invasive temperature imaging for monitoring thermal therapies, although the temperature coefficient of this parameter is small (-0.01ppm /°C).
Nanostractural alloys have attracted growing interest because of their potential properties. The recent studies on nanostructured alloys imply the reality of alloy designing without restriction by the equilibrium phase diagram. We review recent results in new alloys developed by mechanical alloying technique and emphasize their potentiality as future materials.