Recent trends on high-temperature oxidation research of heat-resisting alloys were reported. The high-temperature oxidation resistance of alumina-forming alloys was improved by additions of reactive and/or noble metals. The spallation of alumina-scale on the alloys was increased by water-vapor in oxygen. It was stressed in present paper that such additions to Fe-Cr-Al-based alloys improved the oxidation resistance at high temperature in oxygen and in oxygen-water vapor.
In the advanced information-based society, sensors are recognized not only as elements of electrical circuits, but also as value adding information devices. Particularly, sensors for non-invasive biomonitoring show rapid progress in their performances. For this sort of sensors, performances for practical applications such as flexibilities or biocompatibilities are strongly requested. In order to achieve non-invasive biomonitoring, many kinds of biodevices are reported so far. In this article, two kinds of biodevices, soft and flexible biosensors with functional polymers for tear glucose monitoring and biological gas sensors with extremely high gas selectivity for breath analysis are introduced. Also, trends in the developments of those biodevices are reported.
Optics is the oldest field of research togather with Mechanics. Our civilization has been changed drastically at the bigining of 20th century by the establishment of quantum theory, which was stimulated by the finding of the idear of photon in place of electromagnetic wave. The development of Optics and Photonics is reviewed relating with the development of optical science and engineering.
This paper reports the progress and the current state of the education for the elementary school, the junior high school and the high school in Japan. The Mnistry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MECSST) revised the Curriculum Guidelines for Science in 1998. As a result, the school in Japan executed the education free of pressure. Academic societies for physics pointed out the problem in the Curriculum Guidelines for Science. The ability of student's reading comprehension was lower than another ability in the results of the academic ability survey of PISA (Programe for International Student Assessment). The MECSST decided to revise the New Curriculum Guidelines for Science because of the changing situations. This paper argues about the new guidelines and recent educational activity in Japan.
In the present paper, it was shown firstly that the world population, GDP, energy consumption and CO2 emission vary exponentially with time constants of several ten years. Secondly, present use of world photovoltaics, wind power and various renewable energies in Japan were briefly overviewed. Lastly, it was concluded that improvement of the utilization system of environmental energy is necessary to increase the installation capacity.
This paper briefly describes the metal hydrides as the hydrogen storage or transport media, followed by the historical topic including: (i) the discoveries and progress of hydrogen uptake by the elemental metals, (ii) the establishment of the concept “hydrogen storage alloy” by intermetallics, and (iii) from the “hydrogen storage alloy” to the “hydrogen storage material”.
The history and prospects of plasma research in Japan are reviewed from the viewpoint of various research fields such as based on the nuclear fusion, plasma processing and space plasma. The previous and recent researches of plasma in Tokai University are also presented. Furthermore, many fundamentals are and /or applied researches of a sheet plasma which is a special type of strongly magnetized highly ionized slab plasma.