The giant magnetstrictve materials (GMM) are expected in many applications such as power transducers, SAW devices, and sensor devices for under sea, a satellite orbit and outdoor. However, little discussion has been made from the view point of corrosion resistance of GMM. The anodic polarization behavior was measured in acidic, alkaline and neutral salt solutions for the samples of (Tb-Dy-Fe) thin films prepared by DC sputtering process.
The ion-plating is used as a film formation process with a high deposition rate in many mass production process. In this study, we investigated the formation of giant magnetostricive TbFe2 thin film by ion-plating process.
MgO thin films are applied to the protective layer of plasma-dispray devices, because of high secondery electron emission and low sputtering rate. In this study, We investigated the formation of MgO thin films by ion-plating process. The MgO thin films by ion-plating process showed high transparency and high deposition rate.
In this study, magnetostrictive thin films were prepared by do magnetron sputtering process. The magnetic and magunetostrictive properties were investigated in relation to the Ar gas pressure. Compositions of thin film were changed as Ar gas pressure.
In this paper, construction of photo-catatytic rechargeable battery was studied, using organic materials. More suitable battery characteristic was obtained when the resistance of the electrode was decreased by decreasing amount of doping in the electrode. The effect of pigment in electrodes was also investigated.
A new type of photo-rechargeable battery was confirmed to react with light. The battery was composed of merocyanine dye mixed LB film as photocatalyst and poly-pyrrole as charge element. The layer number and the characteristics of the LB film affected drastically the performance of the battery.
Photo-rechargeable battery is a device, which enables both photoelectric conversion and charge storage within a device. In this study a photo-rechargeable battery was made using TiO2 particle sandwiched by pyrrole films. Battery performance was strongly dependent on the particle size and particle distribution.
The dialytic battery (DB) can be generally characterized as a pollution-less battery. In this study, new type of DB was constructed with decreased leak current and pressurized salt water. The output power of the DB could be 10 times more increased than that of the former DB.
A saline water DB (dialytic battery) was modified by using pressurized saline water. Internal resistance was increased with increased pressure. The output power of modified battery was drastically increased as much as double of the former DB battery.
Single phase natural convection in a rectangular loop was experimentally invenstigated. As the results, there was no after effect in the temperature difference between left and right vertical branches and the frequency of temperature oscillation. However, the temperature oscillation patterns are largely influenced by the duration of no heat input. Therefore, in order to investigate the transient effect of the flow in the loop, it is necessary for the loop to rest at least 24 hours. The boundary between the unstable and stable state experimentally determined was slightly different from that obtained from the one-dimensional model.
In the present study supercooling solidifications of an aqueous soluiton of NH4Cl has been experimentally investigated; Fractal analyses were made for the dendritic-ice pattern obtained in the two ways; One is the filled pattern, and the other is that drawn by lines. Their fractal dimension D was determined by the use of the box-counting method. As the results, their fractal dimension D of the filled pattern (Df) is larger than that of the pattern drawn by lines (De). It is concluded that Df represents the true fractal dimension D.
A dialytic battery (DB) with ion-exchange membranes can convert the mixing free energy into the electric energy. The purpose of this paper is in seeing the deterioration of the performance by use of long time of an ion exchange film. Maximum electric power became about 1/10 in carbon electrode by the use of intermittence which lasted for eight years.
Photocatalyst supported on granulated titania was applied to the prevention of polluted algae propagation in eutrophic water. Even in the best conditions for the propagation of algae in MA medium under solar irradiation in summer, water remained almost clear for a period of a month when the photocatalyst was placed approximately 1cm below the surface of water level. Similar results were obtained in the model household waste-water. A larger amount of waste-water was also treated similarly by circulating it to the irradiating water-channel where photocatalyst was densely scattered.
Phyto-remediation by kenaf was attemptedto apply to improve eutrophic water quality. The growth of kenaf was satisfactorily achieved in water environment by using Kanuma-soil(sedimentary rocks and clays of volcanic ashes obtained primarily in northern region of Kanto Plain in Japan). Nitrate was removed from eutrophic water through growing kenaf, while phosphate was mainly absorbed on Kanuma-soil. Accordingly, the combination of kenaf and Kanuma-soil was found to be effective for remediation of eutrophic water environment.
The paper investigates appropriate combination of observation wavelengths that can be used for cloud identification algorithm for the land pixels as well as the ocean pixels. The use of a visible wavelength is suggested to discriminate the cloud over the land from the vegetation, both of which have equally high reflectance in the near-infrared bands. Aerosol radiance at 565nm band, in addition to the one at 865nm band, is proposed due to the relatively low and stable reflectance of ocean water. Some OCTS image examples are shown to demonstrate the performance of this method.
Previously, we reported the improvement of the initial activation rate of LaNi2.5Co2.5 by KOH pretreatment for electrochemical reaction. Hydrogen absorption rate is very sensitive to the sample preparation. In this study, we prepared the pellet form and powder of the LaNi2.5Co2.5 pretreated with KOH. In each form, we examined the effects of the pretreatment on cyclic capacity and hydrogen absorption rate.
Recently, rare earth based hydrogen storage alloys are used as the battery negative electrode. The rate of hydriding is markedly affected by the exposure to air because the surface of metals becomes coated with oxide and hydroxide. The alkaline pretreatments is improved the surface of metals. We reported that the initial hydrogen absorption rate in electrochemical process was enhanced by heating the surface of LaNi5 in alkaline solution. In this study, we investigated the effect of KOH alkaline pretreatment on the equilibrium characteristics of the LaNi5-H system.
The absorption kinetics of H2 with Nd was investigated using a volumetric method under ultra high vacuum. The change in the reaction probability, r as a function of absorbed H amount, N for the Nd-H2 system was compared with those for the La-H2 and Ce-H2 systems. We investigated the correlations between r-N curves and equilibrium property of the Nd-H system relations at 298K.
The diffussion controlling H2 desorption kinetics was found by the measurement of desorption rate of LaNi5H6. According to this result, two methods of analysing the activation energy were examined, one for diffusivity and another for temperature dependence on the desorption rate. From data obtained, the activation energy for diffusion of H was calculated. The activation energies obtained from two different analitic methods were compared with each other.
The hydrogen storage alloy is an important element in hydrogen system as energy carrier. Unfortunately by contacting with air the hydrogen storage alloy becomes to be deactivated and usually does not absorb any hydrogen more. Recently we found the effect of alkaline treatment and subsequent water rinsing process on the H2 sorption characteristics, where the H2 sorption is improved even after a significant oxidation. In this study we investigated the effect of only by the treatment at the water treatment on the H2 sorption characteristics. We found the preferred effect only at adequate temperature and with treatment duration.
Penetration of H2 and CO2 through organic silicone compound sheet was tested from the viewpoint of gas separation. Additionally LaNix was deposited on the organic silicone compound sheet and the penetration characteristics of both H2 and CO2 were investigated. While almost no difference was observed at H2 and CO2 penetration through the sheet without LaNix, however, decreased hydrogen diffusion rate was measured for the film with LaNix.
Electron beam irradiation was carried out for modifing surface chemical property of H2 storage alloy. As a first result, the effect of the irradiation on the H2 sorption characteristics of LaNi5 was investigated. Electron beam of 200kV was irradiated under 1bar air and N2 at room temperature. Irradiation under airdecreased the initial absorption rate, while the storage capacity increased up to 3% after the irradiation under N2.
Environmental impact by recycling paper package for milk products (milk pack) was estimated using environmental I/O table in Japan. Present state of recycling technology and materials flow was also investigated. Production of 7.66×105ton toilette paper (1997 in Japan) was considered using recycled 2.001×105ton of milk pack (1997 in Japan) in function of recycle rate. In case of using PE coating film on milk packs for thermal energy in recycle process the impact becomes reduced with increasing recycle rate of milk packages.
Air exposure of LaNi5, which yields the growth of surface oxide layer, results in the decreased H2 absorption rate and the accelerated pulverization of the sample at the subsequent hydriding cycles. Recently effect of alkaline pretreatment and/or of Pd catalysis addition onto the LaNi5 powder were reported. Accelated molecular dessociation on the oxide surface by these treatments improve the absorption kinetics drastically even after significant oxidation. In this report the effect of these treatments on the sample pulverization was investigated. The existence of surface alkaline hydroxide (LiOH) layer accelerated the pulverization, while no difference was observed at the addition of Pd catalysis.
Centrifuge separation in a Sol-Gel process was tested to form metaloxane distribution in the precursor gel to make a gradient-index lens in short time. In this process, TiO2 gel particles that increase refractive index will grow at early stage of gelation. After centrifuge separation, the solution show characteristic IR absorption spectra which could indicate difference of TiO2 concentration.
A fundamental study of 3-dimendinal photo hardening using an infrared laser, CO2 laser, was carried out instead of using a conventional UV laser. It was aimed to obtain a relation between power densities and irradiation time for thermal hardening plastics.
High pressure operation of Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL) with an advanced jet-type Singlet Oxygen Generator (SOG) and Turbo blower was demonstrated. The required vacuum pump Cavity was substantially reduced by this schare. The obtained chemical efficency was 17.1% at 290W out put. The specific energy, 2.23J/l was three times higher than this of supersonic operation.
One of the most important factors for industrial laser is an ability to produce a pulsed-output beam. In order to achieve high peak pulse generation on Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL), magnetic gain switching based on the Zeeman effect has been studied. As a result, pulse oscillation was successfully obtained and the peak power was three times higher than the average power.
A new gas divertor preventing the reverse flow of the cooling gas has been experimentally investigated by using the small TP-D plasma source. Experimental results clearly show that the newly constructed high vacuum region in the divertor can prevent the reverse flow. An effect of plasma plugging on the reverse flow is also discussed.
Ion electric current “Ii” shows the peak value at the frequency that is higher than ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF: fci) in the sheet plasma. We call “the extraordinary heating of sheet plasma” for the phenomenon mentioned above, although the physical explanation of such heating has not be given up to now.
The effect of the discharge current Id of a sheet plasma on the neon ion temperature which is one of the parameter for gas divertor experiment has been experimentally investigated. The neon ion temperature Ti is measured from the Doppler broad of emission spectrum in the sheet plasma by spectroscopy. We have observed that the value of Ti is nearly constant with respect to Id.
The formation of detached Ar plasma at the undirectional or directional contact of Ar or H2 gas has been carried out experimentally from the viewpoint of the cooling of the Ar plasma concerned with a fundamental research on the gas divertor by using the magnetized sheet plasma. The detached plasma forms easily by the directional contact of H2 cooled gas. On the other hand, no detached plasma forms by the contact of Ar gas.
We have demonstrated the measurement of two-photon laser-induced fluorescence to monitor atom concentrations in a magnetized sheet plasma with vertical gas flow system. The Oxygen atomic radicals were detected by exciting O atoms at 226nm and detecting fluorescence at 845nm.
We have demonstrated the measurment of the heat flux and the spatial profile of the electric current at end-plate in a magnetized sheet plasma. It is found that the heat flux depends on the loss of negatively charged particles at the center region in the sheet plasma.
We have developed the system as it makes up the temporal measurement of the plasma parameters (electron density Ne, electron temperature Te, electron distribution function fe(v)) in the pulse sheet plasma. It is found that Te and fe(v) dramatically change until the plasma is stady state; the high energy electrons (10-20eV) appear at initial condition (t=0.36msec).
We proposed a new type of unstable resonator. Generally it is difficult for the unstable resonator to put out laser beam in a low gain laser medium (ex. Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser: COIL). We considered the new type of unstable resonator, which stimulated more times of transitions in cavity. Output power of unstable resonator was simulated and compared with the confocal one.
Objective of this study is to develop an Optical Multi-Channel Analyzer (OMA) in mid-infrared region and broadband TE-CO2/N2O pulse laser for an environmental gas sensing. Newly developed MCT-array, which is capable of monitoring a wide-range of spectrum at the same time, was employed as a detector of the multi-channel analyzer. Absorption spectrum of the NH3 was successfully observed using this new OMA.
It is known that the quality of cutting plate using laser optics and the flow of assisting gas which is blowing in high speed from processing nozzle. It is estimated that particularly distribution of flow speed and of the gas in the cut kerf influences the characteristics of cutting, but there are various unknown things in them. Then, the target of this research is to find a best condition of cutting from visualization of the flow in the kerf with changing the pressure of assisting gas and the radius of the nozzle and width of the kerf by using optical device.
A multi-channel Fourier transform spectrometer (MCFTS) has the merits of both a Fourier transform spectrometer and a multi-channel spectrometer. We tried the application of a MCFTS to Raman scattering measurements. In this study, the emission of Cd spectral lamp was measured by using a birefringence polarizing interferometer with a Savart plate as a calibration of the system.
In this presentation a general model was proposed for forecasting the development of science and technology in the future using a chaos prediction. A computer program was made for this new model using a neural network based on the Back propagation method.
As for the present world industrial technology, significant progress was made after the industrial revolution. The revolution was the important factor of the progress which changed the structure of the society. In this paper, the revolution in Japan was supposed to be the time period after the world war II. The corresponding industrial revolution in England, America and Japan were compared and analyzed from the view point how changed the society systems in each countries.
We developed the teaching video materials for WWW. We filmed an experiment by a digital video camera. The teaching materials consist of including an experiment of Coulomb's force between the two balls. It is easy to understand the static electricity between the two balls by using visualization of the physical phenomena.
In this research, developments of an educational tool and an instructive simulator for a beginner in the antenna technology were carried out, which provide an analysis of thin wire antenna as well as the basic electromagnetic theory. This instructive simulator is believed to be very useful for a basic analytical function by mean of adopting wavelet.
In this paper, we investigated the characteristics of the historical development of semiconductor device using the concept of abduction. Five types of abduction could be defined in analyzing the historical progress of the semiconductor.