A composite mover device constructed with both hydrogen storage and giant magnetostrictive alloy thin films on each side surface of polyimide substrate were prepared by flash vacuum evaporation and DC magnetoron sputtering process, respectively. Although the composite mover device was about 750ppm before hydrogenation, it was about 1150ppm after hydrogenation. The hydrogenation induced strain was approximately corresponded to that of magnetized sample.
Tightly shrunk Sn-Ta ingots with excellent workability were prepared by the reaction at 750∼800°C from the mixed powder of Sn and Ta containing a few wt% of Cu. Then Jelly Roll processed wires were fabricated starting from Sn-Ta/Nb composites, in which thick (Nb,Ta)3Sn layers were produced after the heat treatment. A few at% Ti substitution for Sn+Ta composision produces denser Sn-Ta ingots and decreases the necessary Ta concentration from 25∼30 at% to 20 at%, which is favorable for the materials cost reduction. The wires with a few at% Ti substitution in the Sn-Ta sheet show a non-Cu Jc of 150 A/mm2 at 22 T and 4.2 K after the reaction at 725∼750°C. The Ti substitution appreciably enhances the formation rate of (Nb,Ta)3Sn layers and increases their areal fraction resulting the increase of non-Cu Jc of the wire.
A wearable glucose sensor for tear sugar measurement was fabricated and evaluated. The sensor was constructed by immobilizing glucose oxidase onto a flexible oxygen electrode, which was fabricated using "Soft-MEMS" techniques onto a functional polymer membrane. Linear relationship between glucose concentration and output current was obtained in a range of 0.049 to 1.37 mmol/l, with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. In addition to characteristics evaluation, the sensor was utilized to tear glucose measurement of a Japan white rabbit. The change of tear sugar induced by oral-administration of glucose was monitored as a current change of the wearable glucose sensor attached on the eye site. In this investigation, the tear glucose level varied from 0.3 to 0.93 mmol/l.
We measured the intra-arterial pressures and pulse wave velocities simultaneously from aorta to radial artery using a guide-wire tipped with a pressure transducer before and after cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB), and calculated the distribution of the stiffness parameters (called β) of aorta-to-radial artery wall. Thereafter, we converted β' s into the wall distensibilities. We found that before CPB the intra-vascular pressures increased gradually from aorta to radial artery, and that corresponding β and wall distensibility increased simultaneously. After CPB, the intra-arterial pressure and β or wall distensibility showed the gradual decrease from aorta to radial artery. These results suggest that aortic-to-radial artery pressure change is attributed to gradual change in β, that is, in the wall distensibilitiy. The cause of change in the wall distensibility after CPB is a subject for another study.
The aim of this experiment is to evaluate visuospatial and visuomotor cognitive function of the normal healthy young subjects. Estimation of object in motion in blinded spatial environment requires focused attention involving retrospective and prospective memory directly relating to visual cognitive functions. The task was carried out on a computer screen where the subjects followed an object in motion that disappears at specified distance and triggering the stop button when the object reaches a specified target. Blind distance and speed variables were used as criteria to determine the cognitive functions in the subjects. Two groups of five subjects performed a visual motion task with no feedback; namely blind condition (object do not reappears upon target triggering) and with feedback; namely visible condition (object reappears upon target triggering) in the reverse order for each group. Results showed object's longer disappearance duration (wider blind distance) affects deterioration in prospective memory more compared to narrower blind distance and the speed of the object has minimal affect in estimating the target.
A method to fabricate electrodes for biosensors using commercial ink-jet printer was developed. An inkjet printer was operated by a personal computer with a graphical software in order that each ink of cyan, yellow and black did not mixed with other inks at the printing area. Two elongated rectangles were printed with silver nano-particle suspension on a thin tracing paper and heated in an oven to acquire conductivity. One of these Ag electrodes was chloridized to form a Ag/AgCl reference electrode. It was suggested that biosensors with other materials including enzymes can be fabricated using ink-jet printing similarly.
Possibility of hydrogen generation from the organic materials using SCW was demonstrated. Higher yield of hydrogen generation was confirmed for higher polyhydric alcohols, such as glycerin and ethylenglycol, where the higher gasification rate was a dominant factor for the generation. The results obtained of the yields of hydrogen generation were still small for the practical utilization; however, several important factors for the decomposition were obtained. Thermodynamic consideration was also carried out.
The atomic branching ratio methods for absolute calibration for the VUV spectoroscope were carried out in hydrogen plasma. Atomic branching ratio methods enables an absolute calibration in the laboratory system. In this study, atomic branching ratio methods was applied to the Lyman series and the Balmer series of the hydrogen atom, where the absolute calibration of the VUV spectroscope was proofread by the spectrum radiation intensity.
Since Japan is the scarcity of resources, it is important to save materials as well as processing cost. The reuse and recycle of the scraps such as broken pieces and odd which were generated during the processing in high-tech factory are discussed. The scrapped materials are in wide variety. In this paper ,the applicability of the scrapped stainless steel plates with fine protrusions, which come from our precise parts materials ,were examined.
Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation is believed to be a quick, effective method for providing oxygen to a victim. The International Guidelines of 2000 have recommended reducing the risk of gastric inflation during mouth-to-mouth ventilation by delivering slow breaths at the lowest tidal volume that would still raise the chest visibly with each ventilation. For mouth-to-mouth ventilation in most adults, the tidal volume would be approximately 10 ml/kg (ca. 700-1000 ml). It should be delivered over 2 s. Can however, an appropriate amount be blown in even if there is no special instruction when an untrained citizen suddenly encounters an accident? We investigated the mean tidal volume during mouth-to-mouth resuscitation by untrained citizens, and it was ca. 800 ml, which corresponds to the recommended value of the current guidelines. In the mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, the composition of the expired air that the rescuer administers to the victim was PO2 and PCO2 of 115±1 mmHg and 32±1 mmHg when the tidal volume was 500 ml. When the tidal volume was 1 l, PO2 and PCO2 were 120±1 mmHg and 29±1 mmHg, respectively (N=10). Moreover, when the ventilation experiment was done to the animal (beagle), the following results were shown (N=7). The amount of ventilation was ca. 20 ml/kg, and 12 breaths per minute. In addition, arterial PaO2, PaCO2, and pH were measured. Consequently, after mouth-to-mouth ventilation, PaO2 decreased to 71±1 mmHg (normal value = 95-100 mmHg), PaCO2 increased to 54±2 mmHg (normal value = 40 mmHg), and the pH became 7.27±0.02. To improve the respiratory state after mouth-to-mouth ventilation, we developed a new Portable Ventilation System (PVS) to the improve ventilation efficiency and to alleviate the risk of infectious disease. By using PVS, the composition of inflow air of the mouth-to-mouth ventilation by rescuers was PO2 139±2 mmHg and PCO2 15±1 mmHg (N=10), when the tidal volume was 500 ml and PO2 and PCO2 were 131±2 mmHg and 19±1 mmHg, respectively when the tidal volume was 1 l (N=10). This ventilation experiment was performed on animals (beagle). After artificial ventilation with gas made by PVS, changes of arterial PaO2, PaCO2 and pH were improved to 84±2 mmHg, 46±1 mmHg, and 7.37±0.01, respectively (N=7). Consequently, results showed that the ventilation efficiency of the new PVS was higher than that for mouth-to-mouth ventilation.
In order to develop an experimental technology employing fish embryonic stem (ES) cells, we attempted to culture cells dissociated from blastula-stage embryos of the medaka (Oryzias latipes). Three types of culture conditions were tested with regard to the culture medium, coating of the culture dishes or addition of conditioned medium. Cells incubated for 1 day under each set of culture conditions were transplanted into recipient embryos to examine whether they retained the ability to form chimeric fish, which was judged according to the body pigmentation. In a control experiment in which intact blastomeres were transplanted, chimeras were produced at a frequency of 32% among survivors. When isolated embryonic cells were dissociated and incubated in a culture medium, most of the cells did not attach to the culture dishes. The frequency of chimera formation by these cells was 15%. Use of gelatin + poly-lysine-coated dishes improved the cell attachment and the cells formed aggregated colonies, but the frequency of chimera formation by these cells decreased to 7%. Further addition of conditioned medium enhanced the cell attachment, and caused the cells to spread individually over the dishes. However, the ability of the cells to form chimeras was lost following this treatment. The results of the present study demonstrate that it is possible to generate viable chimeras from cultured embryonic cells, although further improvement of the culture conditions is necessary to develop a method for culturing fish ES cells.
In order to develop the effective evaluation system for the fatigue of operator's visual system in long term operation, the experiments were carried out utilizing perceptual time duration of motion aftereffect (MAE), critical flicker frequency (CFF) and the near point (NP) measurement. The MAE was measured using rotated spiral figure displayed on a CRT screen. To generate visual fatigue, a signal detection task in randomly displayed alphabets was used. After the task, MAE duration, CFF and NP were increased. It is supposed that the visual fatigue generated by the experimental task affects motion processing system of visual cortex. Results suggest that the MAE can be an effective tool for visual fatigue evaluation.
Y2O3:Eu3+ red phosphor was prepared by the solvothermal synthesis using precursors, yttrium nitrate hydrate 0.001mol [Y(NO3)3 . 6H2O] and europium nitrate hydrate [Eu(NO3)3 . 5H2O], of metal salts in isopropyl alcohol-water solutions at 200°C for 5 hours. When the prepared phosphor powder sample was annealed at 1200°C for 4 hours, X-ray diffraction peaks for annealed powder were the evidences for cubic cell formation of Y2O3 with lattice parameter, a =10.6198Å, which was closely compatible to previously reported data(JCPDS Card File, 41-1105 a=10.6041Å). Typically, this morphology was a group of hexagonal flakes whose size was about 10 - 20μm in length and about 0.5 - 1μm in thickness. The emission intensity of Y2O3:Eu3+ red phosphor was characterized by changing activator concentrations and heat-treatment temperatures. The maximum emission intensity of this phosphor was obtained when the Eu concentration was 2 mole%.