The zinc silicate phosphor particles with various compositions were prepared by the precipitation method. Particle shape of zinc silicate phosphor have been controlled by the pyrolysis, resulting in the uniform size of spherical particles of zinc silicate phosphor. Preparation method and characteristics of this phosphor with spherical particle shape have been described. The photoluminescence and crystalline properties of green emitting phosphors were studied as a function of the firing temperature and the concentration of Mn activator.
The helium ion temperature in a sheet plasma has been determined spectroscopically as the functions of experimental variables such as the gas flow rate and a discharged current in the discharged region of a DC discharge linear plasma machine, i.e., TPD-Sheet III. It is found from experimental results that the experimental variables selected out do not affect a rise in helium ion temperature within experimental errors. It is, thus, presumably true that the decrease in gas flow rate and/or the increase in the discharged current are associate with the increase in number density of helium ion in the sheet plasma unless the rise in helium ion temperature.
During investigation of the molecular mechanism of large DNA fragmentation in apoptosis, we found that one of our clones, which were derived from 30kb DNA fragments generated from heat-treated human cells, mached perfectly with many sequences in E. coli genomic DNA, E. coli cDNA, a Neiserria plasmid, and several human genomic DNAs and cDNAs. All had exactly the same 153bp sequence. In fact, 1147bp DNA, containing the 153bp sequence, was apparently shared between human chromosomes 12, 13, and 21 and E. coli. This DNA was identified as E. coli insertion element 5. We need to pay carefull attention to such contaminations in genome data bases.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the present status of energy use in the United Kingdom (UK) in comparison with that in Japan. A special attention was paid to the renewable energy use and its policy in order to meet the UK 10% target of renewables electricity in 2010. There are some similarities and several differences in the energy use between the UK and Japan. One of the largest differences between them is the self sufficiency of energy: the UK is an export country of oil and gas in contrast to Japan (in which almost energy resources are imported). Energy consumption per capita is approximately equal with each other. Although the renewable energy use covers only a small fraction at present, policies on the renewable energy in the UK has undergone some drastic changes in a recent few years. Key policy instruments to meet the target are the Climate Change Levy and the Renewables Obligation. In relation to these policies greenness, renewability and sustainability were discussed.
Physical and chemical vapor deposition (PVD/CVD) and electrochemical deposition (ECD, electroplating) both lead to film formation by the deposition of the material in the atomic scale. On the base of advanced vacuum and plasma technologies, PVD and CVD processes have found their role in coating and thin film deposition, even if not comparable with “traditional” processes regarding the application volume. A lack of knowledge coupled with bias towards one or other technique often results in a false estimation of their relative benefits. Also judging the processes as inexorably competing is an inappropriate approach. On the base of the fundamentals of both techniques, the potentials and limitations are outlined. The major advantages of ECD are, e.g., the coatability of almost all substrate shapes, specific surface structures, possible leveling of surface roughness or positive structure design. Disadvantages might be the problems with hazardous substances and waste water. The major advantages of PVD are the almost unlimited variation in the chemical composition of the coating material, the principal tolerance of all substrate materials and the deposition of compounds like nitrides, carbides etc. or materials like carbon and diamond. Advantages are also the easy realization of layered or graded structures. Disadvantages are, e.g., the need of vacuum and plasma equipment and the line-of-sight process with the need for complex sample movement. In practical application the one or the other technique will be applied. In other cases the processes might be competing, and often process combinations solve problems best. The final decision with respect to the process selection, however, is often governed also by non-technical aspects like economic and ecological facts.