Used glass bottles have remained useless. It is, thus, the present purpose how the used bottles can be processed and changed to the insulation materials technologically. After the used glass bottles are grounded into <50μ powder by a mortar or a ball-mill in ethyle alcohol, the obtained slurry powder is mixed with carbonate and others. Such slurry, then, is pressed under the pressure of 20MPa and heated at 800°C for 10min. in the air. Judging from the results of many physical and mechanical tests of the finally obtained materials, i.e., porous ceramics, we propose that the porous ceramics could be used as the insulation materialse.
The recycling of trash glass is strongly required from the views of the environmental pollution and the re-use of wasted glass. It is the present purpose how the trash glass can be processed and changed to the insulation materials technologically. After the trash glass is grounded into <50μ powder by a mortar or a ball-mill in ethyle alcohol, the obtained slurry powder is mixed with calcium carbonate and others. Such slurry, then, is pressed under the pressure of 20MPa and heated at 800°C in the air. Judging from the results of many physical and mechanical tests of the finally obtained materials, i.e., porous ceramics could be used as the insulation materials.
The purpose of this research wants to create L/LB film of an only organic-dye without Arachidic acid (AA). However, if L/LB has no AA, it will not be in a good condition of molecule state. Therefore, membranous molecule condition is regularly controlled by electric field. Only RhodamineB's molecule condition of L film created a set state that touches the hydrophilic group. And The condition was analyzed the π-A curve. Moreover, only Merocyanine created LB film, which controlled to J band condition. Optical absorption strum of the LB film was measured and examined. As a result, it was found from two analyses that both of molecules were controlled by the electric field.
A new actuator for medical catheter is developed, which is operated by volume expansion of hydrogen storage alloy. A testing actuator using LaNi3Co2powder exhibited reversible shape change by changing the hydrogen gas pressure. A large strain change was obtained by alterative flowing of pure H2 gas and Ar-5%H2 gas mixture.
Newly discovered MgB2 superconducting tapes have been prepared by PIT process. The critical current (Ic) of the Ni-sheathed MgB2 tapes with 10vol% In and Sn addition excesses 300A at 4.2K, corresponding to above the critical current density (Jc) of 40, 000A/cm2. The addition of powder metals with low melting point improves the Ic for the MgB2 superconducting tapes.
A stick-type gas-phase biosensor (bio-nose) for ethanol vapor was constructed using alcohol oxidase (AOD). The calibration range of the bio-nose for ethanol vapor was from 1.0 to 500ppm. The nose device was also possible to assess the concentration of ethanol in breath air after alcohol-drinking.
A gas-phase biosensor (bio-nose) for ammonia was fabricated by incorporating an enzyme electrode with flavin-containing monooxygenase into a reaction unit with both liquid- and gas-phase cells separated a porous diaphragm membrane. The bio-nose was calibrated against ammonia vapors from 3.72 to 366ppm.
To investigate the cognitive functioning of moving visual target detection from the non-target visual flow with the same or opposite flow direction, an experiment was carried out with a computer controlled CRT display. Correct detection score of the target from the non-target flow with the opposite direction was better than that from the same direction. The effects of the visual adaptation on task performance was discussed.
To investigate the cognitive aspects of posture control under the apparent force condition generated by auditory stimulation, body sway fluctuation was measured with healthy adult subjects. As an experimental stimulation, an increasing tone for the left ear and a decreasing tone for the right ear were used.. Subjects felt that the sound source was moving from right to left under an eyes closed condition. On the contrary, subjects who were shown a moving image of a natural scene which was interlocked to the auditory stimulus before the experiment (cognitive preparation), they felt themselves moving from a left to right direction. In this experiment, body sway was measured with and without the cognitive preparation. Results showed that the center of gravity biased to the opposite direction of subjective movement of the sound source with cognitive preparation. Without cognitive preparation, the center of gravity biased in the same direction of subjective movement of the sound source. It suggests that the higher level posture control reflex was observed in the cognitive condition without any sensory input from the muscle receptors.
In order to analyze the performance of 3D perception using controlled random dot patterns containing different pixel density, a minimum required time of depth perception was estimated. The experimental task was to discriminate displayed figures which had three different apparent depths in the random-dot-stereogram on a computer controlled CRT screen. Results showed that the required time for depth perception in the experimental condition was not longer than that in the control condition. This suggests that the depth information processing in the human brain is not only a correlation computation of images from both eyes but also another processing stage based upon multiple feedback mechanism from various visual areas.
For the development of a communication-assisting device for disabled users using simplified symbols, legibility of displayed information must be investigated. In this study, to assess the symbol legibility an experimental study was carried out by using measurement of the P300 component of Event Related brain Potentials. Measured amplitudes and latencies of the P300 component were analyzed. Result suggested that the number of association items from a symbol may be influence on the latency of the P300 component.
In order to assess the wearing comfort of disposable diapers for adult users, an experimental study was carried out using the EEG measurement. As the experimental condition, 80ml of physiological salt solution at 37 degrees centigrade was injected in the diaper during the EEG measurement. Three types of diapers with different absorbency were used for the study. Time course of alpha wave activities was analyzed. Integrated alpha power was decreased at 30 minute after salt solution injection in low absorbent diaper. The methodological problems of the assessment of diaper characteristics were discussed.
A thin biosensor for glucose was constructed by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) onto a sensitive area of the flexible oxygen electrode with ITO (Indium-Tin Oxide) working electrode. The glucose sensor has good optical transparency (>0.6 abs.) at visible zone (wavelength: 400-700nm), and was calibrated against glucose standard solutions from 0.06 to 1.24mmol/l.
A convenient telemeter system was constructed using a mobile measuring device (slave unit) and a base computer system (master unit) with two mobile phones. As the results of applying it with thermistors onto skin-surfaces, the system was possible to tele-monitor the skin-surface temperatures successfully.
New lightweight bi-metal actuator which shows the larger shape changes operated by temperature changes was innovated. Polymer-metal bi-metal was prepared by physical vapor deposition. The large reversible shape changes were caused by temperature changes. The maximum strain was about 3500ppm.
The opto-electronics device is an element that photoelectric conversion is possible by itself. In the present investigation, the opto-electronics device was constructed by using organic materials. From this research, we attempt to find out the characteristic of opto-electronics produced by n-silicon and p-photocatalyst layer by changing the polymerization quantity of the storage layer and the incident light intesity. It was found that the photovoltage increases linearly with incident light intesity.
The nitrogen gas reactive plasma is irradiated on the carbon target in order to obtain CNx films. The critera of a better irradiation process are as follows; the target voltage and the discharged current are 300V and 20A, respectively. The CNx films have been analyzed by the FTIR, XPS(ESCA), AFM, Raman and UV Methods. The results suggest that the CNx film is amorphous state.
Among the combination of ternary compounds, we have investigated about the synthesis of Cu2-IV-VI3 and Cu3-V-VI4 (IV=Si, Ge, Sn; V=Sb; VI=Se, Te). The melting points have been determined by using the differential thermal analysis. A single phase was formed for Cu2GeSe3, Cu2GeTe3, Cu2SnSe3, Cu2SnTe3 and Cu3SbSe4 by melt growth. As results of temperature dependence of Seebeck coefficient, the maxima of Cu2SiTe3, Cu2GeTe3 and Cu2SnSe3 were obtained to be 144, 25 and 231μV/°C respectively.
Oxidation of Fe-20Cr-4Al alloys with small amounts of sulfur was studied in dry air at 1273K for 3600ks by mass change measurements, X-ray diffraction, macro-morphology of oxidized surface of the Fe-20Cr-4Al alloys, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Mass change of the alloy with 7ppm of sulfur showed a negative value because of marked spalling of the oxide film or the alloy. Mass changes increased with increasing sulfur content.
The effects of yttrium addition on oxidation behavior of a Fe-20Cr-4Al-S alloy were studied in dry air at 1273K for 3600ks by mass change measurements, macro-morphology of oxidized surface, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Mass change of an alloy containing only S (185ppm) was 0.67×10-2kg/m2. The mass change of the alloys increased in the order of the 300ppmY<800ppmY<3700ppmY<10ppmY<185ppmS.
Oxidation behavior of Fe-20Cr-4Al-S (185ppm) alloys with hafnium was studied in dry air at 1273K for 3600ks by mass change measurements, macro-morphology of oxidized surface, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The mass change of the alloy containing only 185ppmS was of 0.67×10-2kg/m2. The mass changes of all the alloys increased in the order of the 900ppmHf<500ppmHf<1900ppmHf<185ppmS<4300ppmHf.
The cyclic-high temperature oxidation behavior of Fe-20Cr-4Al-S (748ppmS: A), Fe-20Cr-4Al (702ppmS, 30ppmY: B), Fe-20Cr-4Al (645ppmS, 30ppmY: C) and Fe-20Cr-4Al (73ppmS, 1700ppmY: D) alloys was studied in oxygen at 1273K during 5cycles (1cycle=18.0ks) by mass change measurements, macro-morphology of oxidized surface of the alloy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Mass changes of all the alloys increased with increasing number of cycles. Cyclic-high temperature oxidation resistance of the C and D alloys increased markedly as compared with the A and B alloys.
The cyclic-high temperature oxidation behavior of Fe-20Cr-4Al (748ppmS: A), Fe-20Cr-4Al (702ppmS, 30ppmY: B), Fe-20Cr-4Al (645ppmS, 30ppmY: C), Fe-20Cr-4Al (382ppmS, 40ppmY: D) and Fe-20-Cr-4Al (73ppmS, 1700ppmY: E) alloys was studied in oxygen at 1673K during 5 cycles by mass change measurements, macro-morphology of oxidized surface of the alloys, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Mass changes of all the alloys increased with increasing number of cycles. The alloy E showed marked resistance for the cyclic-high temperature oxidation.
Mg2Ni is one of the most promising hydrogen storage materials because of its high hydrogen absorption capacity. But its hydriding and dehydriding kinetics are very slow and hydriding/dehydriding temperature is very high. Recently much attention has been paid to make nanostructural Mg2Ni alloy. The alloy is expected to have much faster kinetics for hydrogen absorption and desorption at lower temperatures. The hydrogen absorption properties of nanostructural Mg2Ni alloy prepared by mechanical grinding is discussed.
In order to estimate dependence of volume fraction of ceramic and metallic phase on composite's creep behavior, we fabricated Ti-TiB in situ composites whose volume fractions of TiB were 10, 24 and 40%. The steady-state creep rates of all composites were agreement with the estimation of continuum mechanic. Microstructure of Ti-40TiB, however is quite different from that of Ti-10TiB, because TiB whiskers are strongly connected each other in Ti-40TiB. This structure of Ti-40TiB seems to require the deformation off TiB to creep, and of creep behavior of composites with high volume fraction of reinforcements requires more extensive study.
Solid-state diffusion bonding (DB) was demonstrated for joining closed-cell aluminum foams (ALPORAS). A superplastic 5083 aluminum alloy sheet was inserted between the foams to assist the DB process. Microscopic observation revealed that the cell wall of the foams penetrated into the 5083 alloy sheet and their interface partly disappeared. Energy dispersion X-ray spectrometer(EDS) confirmed the diffusion of magnesium element from the 5083 alloy to the aluminum foam regions. The bonding strength was evaluated by four-point bend tests. The obtained bending stress was about 50% of the original foam at room temperature and was more than 60% at 423K. The advantage of the DB process in the high temperature applications was discussed comparing with the adhesive bonding of aluminum foams.
Laser media have been conventionally made of single crystal materials. However, single crystals have the disadvantages of less flexibility of forming and poor productivity. We used ceramic materials in place of single crystals to solve these problems. We produced ceramic laser media in which porosity and purity were controlled.
Permeation of H2 through a cation-exchange membrane was tested from the viewpoint under H2 purification. We measured the hydrogen penetration property of a catian-exchange membrane under various conditions. No permeation of the H2 gas was observed through a dry membrane or a wet membrane. However, hydrogen permeated through a few membranes with vacuum-evaporated of Au-Pd layers as a catalyst.
In hydrogen energy systems, hydrogen transportation using hydrogen storage alloys e.g. LaNi5 is expected. Since the weight of hydrogen storage alloys is huge, less heavy hydrogen storage alloys are required. From this point of view, we prepared the alkaline hydrogen storage alloys by mechanical alloying and investigated their hydrogen absorption characteristics.
Electrolysis of water is an important production method of hydrogen. But it contains much amount of impurities such as O2 and H2O etc. The H2 absorption of hydrogen storage alloy is deteriorated by impurities in H2 gas. Recently, we reported an effect of LiOH and H2O pretreatment, which drastically enhances the H2 absorption of the alloy even after the significant air oxidation. In this paper, we report effect of LiOH pretreatment on H2 absorption of water vapor exposed LaNi5.
Photo-rechargeable battery was constituted using the Pori-Pyrrole and Rhodaminine B as a photocatalyst layer and an electronic accumulation material respectively. Accumulation voltage and efficiency were measured with different polymerization voltage of 0.5-3.0[V]. At lower polymerization voltage, higher photo voltaic efficiency was obtained.
The Performance of model generator of DB (Dialytic Battery) and UDB (Ultra Dialytic Battery) were compared under same experimental condition. Time dependence of output voltage and electric power were observed. In spite of larger internal resistance of UDB, higher output energy was obtained in comparison with the DB.
A photovoltaic cell was fabricated based on the basic structure of Gratzel cell. All the systems of this cell were made from the electro conducting polymers which was an organic substance of poly-para-phenylene (PPP). We used p and n-type PPP which were made by the electrolytic polymerization as an electrode. Successful result was obtained as a functioning all plastic photovoltaic cell.
In this study, we aimed at measuring the quantitative reactivity of O2 and H2O with Ce films with clean surface at 298K. In Ce-O2 system, the reactivity of O2 with the Ce surface exhibited the highest value at the initial stage, meaning that all O2 molecules impinging the surface can adsorb on the Ce surface. With the increasing amount of adsorbed O2, the O2 reactivity decreased rapidly. Ce was found to have higher O2 reactivity compared with other rare earths metals. In Ce-H2O system, the reactivity of H2O with the Ce surface exhibited also the highest value at the initial stage, suggesting that all H2O molecules impinging the surface adsorb and dissociate into H, O and/or OH. The number of the H atoms dissociated from the adsorbed H2O molecules was found to decrease with the increasing amount of adsorbed H2O molecules. A quantitative analysis was made for the reactivity of the H atoms dissociated from H2O.
We reported that the alkaline surface treatment using LiOH, NaOH, and KOH markedly decreases the work function for electrons of the alloy surface, and that this effect accelerates the initial activation rate of the LaNi5 alloys. In this study, the effects of the alkaline surface treatment and the surface oxidation on the work function, the initial activation rate, and the surface condition of the LaNi5 alloy were examined.
In the Hydrogen Energy System, hydrogen storage alloy is considered to be an important energy carrier. LiOH pretreatment enhances activation process and also H2 absorption even after oxidation. This reaction mechanism is not clearly explained until now. In this study, the surface of LaNi5 alloy treated by LiOD solution was analyzed by TOF-SIMS. Lager intensity of H was confirmed at the place with higher concentration of Li. Higher raction rate can be explained by this higher H concentration caused by LiOH pretreatment.
The misting-free has been developed by sheet electron beam irradiation treatment. We studied the effect of sheet electron beam irradiation on blur free property of anatase phase of TiO2 thin film. The sheet electron beam irradiation decreased the contact angle on anatase phase of TiO2 thin film.
We studied effect of electron beam irradiation on time to clear vision of natural quartz crystal. The EB irradiation decreased time to clear vision. Based on the result of ESR, the dangling bond was increased by electron beam irradiation.
The submillimeter wavelength region is the last undeveloped spectral window in modern astronomy. Our purpose is to develop the photoconductive detector for 300μm band using GaAs epitaxial film. The final goal of our detector development is to obtain a Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) type detector. Ultra pure GaAs films have been grown reproducibly by the sliding boat method of Liquid Phase Epitaxy(LPE). The epitaxial films with the carrier density of 5.6×1013cm-3 and the mobility of 86600cm2/Vs at 77K were grown.
A newly optical gas-sensor was fabricated by immobilizing alcohol oxidase onto a tip-surface of an oxygen sensitive optical fiber with a ruthenium complex. As the results of the batch analysis, the bio-optical nose was possible to use for measuring ethanol vapor concentration. The nose device could be applied for detecting other substances in the gas-phase by changing biocatalysts.
A new type mist-singlet oxygen generator (Mist-SOG) for a chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) has been developed. The Mist-SOG is devoted to make the liquid recirculation unnecessary with the complete reaction through a single pass of basic hydrogen peroxide (BHP). However, the water vapor pressure increases because of the reaction heat in the Mist-SOG is higher than the usual SOG. The pressure is suppressed from 2.2 Torr to 1.3 Torr by using the cooling medium of H2O2.
In a nuclear fusion oriented plasma, divertor plasma plays important roles, such as impurity control and plasma heat treatment. In this research, divertor plasma was simulated using straight line type sheet plasma. Especially, ion temperature that is an important parameter to control impurities is measured by spectroscopic method. As a result of measurement, ion temperature was evaluated from doppler width.
A freshness sensor for fish and meat was constructed by immobilizing flavin containing monooxygenase type-3 (FMO3) as, one of drug metabolizing enzymes in human liver, to a dissolved oxygen electrode. The FMO3 immobilized sensor was calibrated against trimethylamine solutions (TMA, fish-odor substance) from 1.0 to 50.0mmol/l. As the results of the experiments with fish and meat samples, the sensor output increased by increasing a keeping period at the room temperature for their decomposition.
By using energy effectively, human beings built rich material civilization. On the other hand, civilization produced the resources exhaustion problem and the environmental problem. Petroleum exhaustion in the 21st century will restrict an economic activity. In connection with it, it is thought that the energy source of supply by the solar cell etc. clean and stabilized over the future is required. In this paper, the scenario lighting of solar cell production prediction and solar cell production increase was performed. The future state was examined from them.
In this paper, experimental results and simulation results of operating frequency shift are reported by a 10GHz HEMT oscillator with illumination. Resulting from measurement of the illuminated oscillator, it is confirmed that the operating frequency shift depends on illumination intensity. Simulation results of the oscillating with illuminated FET model showed good agreement with experimental results. As a result, the operating frequency can be controlled with illumination intensity parameters.
In this paper, the antenna analysis simulator made by the object oriented programming was reported. This simulator based on a plug-in frame structure was composed by GUI, a FDTD solver and a Moment Method solver. These elements were combined in the plug-in frame by the API. This simulator can work with the solvers using the FDTD and the Moment Method under the identical GUI. Numerical results from each analysis method for a thin-wire antenna were compared.
One possible resolution to requirements for SSPS spacetenna as small-size, light-weight, beam control and retrodirectivity is reported. As an effective solution, an active integrated antenna arrays was demonstrated. Two types of the active integrated antenna arrays was made. These operated at 2.45GHz and 5.8GHz. Fundamental operation for beam steering of 20 degree for the retrodirectivity was confirmed.
In this report, the implementation and characterization of a millimeter wave Active Integrated Antenna Array is demonstrated, utilizing second harmonics for the MMIC oscillator with the multiple 3D printed PBG structure by etching. The 3D PBG structure is laminated by 2D PBG structure. The PBG was designed by computer program based on the FDTD method. The PBG structure works to suppress the leaked fundamental wave and makes improve performance of the Active Integrated Antenna Array.