Ocean plays an important role in the global climate system by exchanging heat, momentum and fresh water flux through the ocean surface with atmosphere. Since atmospheric circulation is mainly driven by sea surface temperature in the ocean, heat transfer from the ocean to the atmosphere is critical in the climate system. In this paper we demonstrate importance of the ocean and describe heat energy cycle in the ocean and the atmosphere. Moreover, we briefly explain about El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) as an example of air-sea interaction.
Radiation energy from the sun is divided into three categories: 52% is for visible radiation, 42% invisible infrared radiation, and 6% invisible ultraviolet radiation. As they inseparably constitute solar radiation, if you bask in the sun you are certainly exposed to ultraviolet radiation whether you like it or not. In my childhood solar ultraviolet radiation was considered beneficial to our health and sunbathing was recommended. Recently, however, the negative effects of solar ultraviolet radiation on living organisms have been observed. This lecture covers five topics, including the criteria for evaluating the hazards and the benefits of solar ultraviolet radiation: 1. Light and ultraviolet radiation (UV), 2. Depletion of stratospheric ozone and the increase of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B), 3. UV effects on human skin and eyes, 4. Characteristics of solar UV-B and ultraviolet-A radiation (UV-A), and 5. Practical prevention for solar UV exposure.
Importance of reconstruction of forest ecosystem was emphasized in relation to carbon cycle of the world. Reconstruction of forest ecosystem and use of reproducible energy resources instead of fossil energy are greatly required in order to reduce the CO2 emmission originated from human activity. In the perspective of food problem of the world, suppression of population increase rate together with increase of crop production per unit land area are required. It is estimated that eight billion of population may be maximam to make most humans possible to live without hunger problem.
A modern industrial society is highly depending on a huge amount of energy resources. The world energy consumption has been increasing year by year. It will be increasing with the economic growth of developing countries. Stable energy supply and environmental protection are absolutely essential for leading a high quality of life. A well-balanced utilization of energy resources must be achieved through “3Es” such as economic growth, stable energy supply and environmental preservation. Japan is attempting to develop new energies, including nuclear power, and increase its use of natural gas, while strengthening Japan's energy conservation policies. The new energy supply system in pursuit will serve as a model for other Asian countries as well, given the fact that they share various similarities with Japan, including the climate, the lack of energy sources, and vulnerability in energy supply.
In order to construct so-called “recycling-based society, ” we should get rid of mass production and mass consumption and develop environmentally conscious products. For designing such environmentally conscious products, in addition to utilizing recyclable materials and increasing disassemblability, it is important to design and manage the whole product life cycle appropriately. After introducing the concept of environmentally conscious manufacturing called “inverse manufacturing, ” this lecture explains the importance of life cycle design by describing some examples including limitation of material and energy recovery and possibility of product and component reuse.
The main objective of this lecture is to present a background understanding for the current endeavor to change the course of the humanospheric evolution. In order for every human being to lead a happy life, physical conditions such as adequate supply of fresh water and foods, no shortage of materials that are essential for our modern living, sufficient control over poisons and diseases that infect us and our environments, and securing enough energy sources that last forever are prerequisite. Obviously, we need to develop new technologies, new societal systems, and new lifestyles to achieve these. However, it should be emphatically stressed that these conditions and the three new subjects (technology, social system, and lifestyle) are only desirable as far as they make it possible to provide everybody with a happy life. The evolution of global material cycles, current status of material and energy exchange between the biosphere and the humanosphere, and four rules of ecology are discussed in this context. On the analogy of human relationship between young and olds, the reduction of the exchange between young humanosphere and old global life support system is proposed to be the most urgent target.
We investigated variability in the size of restriction fragments of the rDNA region among 4 laboratory strains of the freshwater fish medaka including two wild-type fish and two pigmentation mutants. For this analysis, PCR-amplified 18S rDNA was used as a probe. DNA from 6 individuals of each strain was analyzed and significant variability in the restriction fragments was observed. The copy number of the 18S rDNA determined by dot-blot hybridization was also highly variable among individuals, from 120 to 2, 591. These results revealed considerable genomic polymorphism at this region in the medaka.