The aims of this study were to focus on the Y2K issue and to examine the effect of social consideration (the degree to which people perceive themselves as a social entity rather than an individual entity, Yoshida et al. , 1999) on perceptions and human behavior regarding this issue. Undergraduates and junior college students (N=254) responded to a set of questionnaires before and after Y2K (2000/1/1). The results were as follows : (1) Although people perceived Y2K-related risks, they didn't take adequate preventive measures against the impending Y2K changes ; (2) An optimistic outlook toward Y2K was negatively correlated with the two risk communication factors of information gathering and need for information from experts ; (3) People with high Social Consideration had high levels of both information gathering and need for information, and they also took more precautionary measures than did people with low Social Consideration. These results suggest that enhancing social consideration is important in order to make risk communication more successful.
In Japan, the term "strength of luck" (as directly translated from Japanese) commonly refers to a fixed dispositional trait. In order to gain a more concrete understanding of the usage of the term "strength of luck," a questionnaire was designed and survey conducted of subjects to study the belief that some people have "strong luck" and others have "weak luck." The results showed that people who see themselves as having "strong luck" differ from those who see themselves as having "weak luck" in that : 1. They believe that they have many "lucky" experiences and few "unlucky" experiences. 2. Most of these "lucky" experiences occurred in "important situations." There was no difference between people who see themselves as having "strong luck" and those who see themselves as having "weak luck" when the occurrence probability of the event was considered low from the start. 3. They think that their "strength of luck" is correlated with their amount of effort. 4. It wasquite rare for them to make social comparisons. On the other hand, according to these results, people who see themselves as having "weak luck" don't necessarily feel they have few successful experiences in daily life, nor did they feel helpless. It was concluded that how one interprets one's own "strength of luck" is based on particular "lucky" and/or "unlucky" experiences.
This paper examined the conceptual framework and measurement of adult mother-daughter relationships in Japan incorporating the intergenerational solidarity theory (McChesney & Bengtson, 1988) . Both the conceptual fromework and measurement scale were adapted to the unique characteristics of adult mother daughter relationships in the Japanese socio-cultural context. A survey was administered by mail to a random sample of 800 women (aged 30 and older) . Results revealed different characteristics for adult mother-daughter relationships in Japan when compared with those in the United States. For example, affection was composed of the 3 factors of closeness, equality, and conflict, instead of only one factor as in the United States. Patterns of exchange differed deponding on the type of resource, in contrast with one consistent pattern of exchange for all types of resources in the United States. It was also found that the 'le' norm prescribed one-way support from daughter to mother. Issues concerning the cultural adaptation of the measurement of adult mother-daughter relationships are discussed and possible directions of future research are suggested.
This study analyzed 251 completed questionnaires concerning the social support network of caregivers for elderly family members. The hierarchy of social support resources was assumed to be in the order of co-resident family members, non-resident family members, friends, and neighbors to professional caregivers. Using the subcategory comparison method showed that a lower member compensates for a higher member's absence for emotional and instrumental support, and thus a hierarchical compensation model was supported. Social support network members conformed to the task specificity model regarding emotional, minor and major instrumental support, companionship, and informational support. Further, for companionship and informational support, particular resources indicated that compensation depends upon task specificity. Therefore, revision of the hierarchical compensation model is suggested. Caregiver levels of life satisfaction in cases of coresident family support are than those of non-resident family support. The importance of family support, the possibilities of compensation, and the differences of social support networks that depend on the relationships between caregivers and caretakers, are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate positive illusions in close relationships involving romantic partners and friends among college students. Participants were 81 couples in romantic relationships (Study 1) and 67 couples in friendly relationships (Study 2). Results showed that both romantic partners and friends exhibited pronounced positive illusions of their relationships. As for their relationships, it was also shown that both groups evaluated their partners more positively than they evaluated themselves. The more this happened in romantic relationships, the higher were the positive illusions of those romantic relationships. In friendly relationships, people who viewed themselves positively tended to evaluate their relationship more positively.