This study investigated the antecedents and outcomes of 4 components of organizational commitment. Data for this research came from 260 non-expert fulltime workers in Japan. As antecedents, Positive human relationships in the workplace predicted greater internalization and attachment to the organization, while positive relationships with coworkers were negatively related to the continuance component. As outcomes, pro-organizational behaviors were facilitated by internalization, but not by attachment, and attendance at internal events was reduced by the continuance component. Implications for future research are discussed.
Two experiments using the "Prisoner's Dilemma with Variable Dependence" with a total of 70 subjects are reported. The cooperation rate was extremely high (95.1%) while the game was being repeated, but only half of the subjects cooperated in the final game. This suggests that cooperation in ongoing relations is supported by the "shadow of the future" (Axelrod, 1984). Nonetheless, most subjects trusted a partner who had behaved cooperatively toward them in the repeated games (i.e., under an incentive structure that encouraged such behavior), even in the final game, in which such an incentive basis was absent. This result indicates that the subjects failed to distinguish the two bases of expecting benign behavior from interaction partners-trust based on the inferred personal traits of the partner and assurance of cooperation based on the nature of the incentive structure.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between in-group favoritism and the "black sheep effect." In-group favoritism was measured by intergroup comparison of estimated rates of poor vs. excellent group members. Further, in-group favoritism was classified into three types. In the first experiment, we designed the in-group favoritism type as the independent variable, and the desirability of examples as the dependent variable. Those who perceived the ratio of in-group poor members to be smaller than that of the out-group (=in-group favoritism type focusing on poor members) showed the black sheep effeet. The second experiment examined the relationship between the black sheep effect and the ratio of poor members in the in-group favoritism type, focusing on poor members. We hypothesized that the black sheep effect might occur clearly when the ratio of poor members was small. The ratio of poor members was the independent variable, and the desirability score was the dependent variable. The results showed the effect of the ratio of poor members to be significant. These findings are discussed in terms of the implications for cognitive-motivational strategies related to the black sheep effect.
The purpose of this study was to examine the psychological problems experienced after leaving destructive cults and the effects of the progress period after leaving and non-professional counseling. The study analyzed the psychological problems by using a questionnaire survey administrated to 157 former cult members from two different cults. The results of factor analysis revealed the following eleven factors for psychological problems: 1) tendencies for depression and anxiety, 2) loss of self esteem, 3) remorse and regret, 4) friendship building and socializing difficulties, 5) family relationship difficulties, 6) floating, 7) fear of sexual contact, 8) emotional instability, 9) tendency for psychosomatic disease, 10) concealment of past life, and 11) anger toward the group. The results of an analysis of variance showed that tendencies for depression and anxiety, tendency for psychosomatic disease, and concealment of past life decreased during the progress period after leaving the group and counseling, while loss of self-esteem and anger toward the group increased by counseling.
The justice-bond theory emphasizes the role of justice in the process by which people become attached to their groups. In application of the theory to the attitudes toward one's country, we constructed the following hypotheses by integrating the utilitarian and group value models. That is, perceived distributive justice would increase perceived life satisfaction, which in turn would increase positive attitudes toward one's country, and perceived procedural justice would directly increase those attitudes. We examined the hypotheses by measuring the perception of distributive and procedural justice on three different levels (macro, vocational, and community). We conducted a covariance structure analysis on data obtained from 826 adult citizens who responded to our questionnaire. The results supported the predictions regarding the effects of perceived justice on the macro and vocational levels, but not those on the community level. The present study suggested that the perceptions of distributive and procedural justice exert different effects on the attitudes toward one's country and that multi-level judgments of justice are necessary for understanding these processes.