The purpose of this study is to explore a hierarchy model of social attitudes in Japanese university students (male=279, female=166) by item analysis based upon factor analytic method. The correlation matrix among 8 attitude scales was analyzed by principal component analysis. Four primary factors: Political Conservatism vs. Progressivism (PC), Conservatism vs. Progressivism in Social Norms (SC) (the above two kinds of conservatism factors are positively correlated). Liberalistic, Democratic Pacifism (LDP) and Political Apathy (PA) were obtained by Promax rotation. The second-order orthogonal factors: General Conservatism vs. Progressivism (GC) and General Liberalistic, Democratic Pacifism (GL) were extracted from the primary factor correlations. The results suggest that the basic structure of Liberalism (L) and Conservatism (C) is fundamentally two-dimensional. Moreover, the so-called Liberalism vs. Conservatism continuum such as the two scales for Agreement with the Tenno System and Armaments is correlated with the C factors (PC and SC) positively, and with the L factor (LDP) negatively.
The traditional approaches in person perception have generally failed in dealing with the type of information concerning the behavior of the target person in various situations, the commonest type of information exchanged in daily interpersonal Interactions. To ameliorate this state of the art, we conducted the following experiment: The task given to the Ss was to select the correct alternative action among the specified alternatives which the target person had chosen in three of the test situations (the Ss would obtain bonus for each correct prediction). Before doing this, the Ss were allowed to purchase hint information concerning the actions the target person had taken in each of the twenty different situations, as many hints as they like to have at a certain cost per each hint. Significant differences were obtained between two groups of Ss: university students and much older adults (mostly housewives). The most important findings in this study were obtained through the structural analyses of the processes of the Ss' information processing shown in their protocol data.
In the present paper, the author discusses, based on empirical data, the relationship between the subject's religious involvement (with Islamic Religion), referred to, here, as RINDEX (Religious Index), and the extent to which he tends to agree with a set of 10 societal norms about work. These norms include 5 right or Entitlement Norms (EN) and 5 duty or Obligation Norms (ON) (presented in the form of 4-point scales). The results of 345 respondents show that the subjects highly involved with Islamic Religion (HRINDEX) are more likely to be obligation-oriented in their conception of work than do the moderately (MRINDEX) and less involved (LRINDEX) subjects. On the other hand, the LRINDEX subjects were found to be more right-oriented than HRINDEX and HRINDEX and MRINDEX subjects.
A study on the developmental processes of friendship in college students: A comparative examination of social exchange models predicting relationship commitment. The purpose of this study is to examine the predictive power of alternative determinants of relationship commitment derived from the social exchange perspective. Using longitudinal self-reported data from college students developing friendship for the same-sexed partner, the relative strength of the effects of various social exchange models on commitment was examined. These models contain variables on self-outcome, other-outcome, joint outcome, self-input (investment), comparison level for alternatives (CLalt), equity, and equality. Significant effect of the investment model constructed by the combination of self-outcome, self-input, and CLalt was found, and proportion of variance accounted by this model was consistently large compared to those accounted by other social exchange models. On the other hand, equity and equality models had little effects on commitment. Gender differences were also detected for several explanatory variables, suggesting that women were more "social exchange oriented" than men from the early stage in relationship. Moreover, students who had established Intimate relationship for their partner had less concern for social exchange than those who had remained superficial relationship.
The present study tried to make a Japanese self-handicapping scale and examined the scale to measure the individual differences in self-handicapping behavior. Subjects were 428 university students. In Study 1, the self-handicapping scale (Jones et al., 1986) was translated into Japanese. The self-handicapping scale was analyzed, its items and structure were checked for reliability, and so on. As a result "SH23" that consists of 23 items was made "SH23" was negatively correlated with self-esteem scales as predicted. In Study 2, the predictive validity was confirmed. Also two factors that are the "can't" factor and the "wouldn't" factor which were extracted in Study 1 were contributed independently to predict self-handicapping behaviors.
The purpose of the present study was to analyze attitudinal dimensions of political alienation present in Japanese undergraduate students. A survey was conducted in October 1986 on a total of 737 undergraduates serving as respondents. The major findings of this study will be summarized as follows. (1) Factor analysis of political-attitudinal scales revealed three salient factors named "political estrangement", "political distrust", and "political powerlessness". (2) By combining the political estrangement and the political distrust dimensions, four types of political alienation were obtained-namely "alienated", "apolitical", "anti-establishment", and "allegiant". Most respondents having lower political interest were found to be devided into the "alienated" and the "apolitical" types. (3) By using Quantification Theory, Class II (a statistical method similar to discriminant function analysis), unique features of each type were further examined, except for the "allegiant". It was found that the "anti-establishment" is positively correlated with post-materialism, while the "alienated" is positively correlated with epicurianism. These findings seem to suggest that there are a number of different patterns in political alienation and that self-centered orientation toward immediate pleasure is strongly associated with political alienation.
When there is an achievement goal, a certain amount of time that elapse before that (time perspective), and an allotment of effort that accords with the expectancies toward the outcome, then we can take a one of the three types of time strategies. These are named Primary, Constant, and Late strategy. Experiment-I showes that the longer the time perspective becomes, the less the amount of effort at any point in time. Experiment-II cleares that within the same time perspective, depending on the strategy and intention, the amount of effort changes. Experiment-III showes the relationships between the strategy and its attribution. The result is that Primary strategy is attributed to his intention to the task, Constant strategy to his ability, and Late strategy to the negative social evaluation.