Jinjo Shogaku Sanjutsu (1st-6th grade, 12 volumes in all) is a national
textbook of arithmetic used in ordinary elementary schools from April, 1935 to March,
1943. It was also called the Midori Byoshi (green covered textbook), because the cover
of the textbook was green. The previous textbook, Jinjo Shogaku Sanjutsusho, was also
called the Kuro Byoshi (black covered textbook), because the cover of the textbook was
black. Naomiti Shiono, educational supervisor in the Ministry of Education, became the
head of the project and compiled the Midori Byoshi. He spent seven years and one month
from September, 1933 to October, 1940 on the compilation of the textbook. This was done
amid the heightening and expansion of the mathematics education reform movement. The
following points are discussed in this paper. First: The process of Naomiti Shiono aiming
at the revision of the Kuro Byoshi textbook until he became the Midori Byoshi textbook
compilation head, and the compilation process that followed. Second: The characteristics
of the aims, the contents, the methods and the levels of the Midori Byoshi textbook.
Third: Response to and the significance of the Midori Byoshi textbook compilation.
Fourth: The message from Midori Byoshi textbook to the present day arithmetic and
mathematics education. That is, to strive for an enriching education, and not to lower
the level of education, and so on.
Many people point out that the reason why children's achievement deterioration
is next point. The point is that many teachers don't have enough abilities to
teach many subjects. So, we aimed to progress teacher's teaching skills, in this study. In
this paper, we aimed to progress teacher's teaching skill through our teaching concerning
the way of the study of teaching contents in the school workshop. It was cleared that
the school workshop had effected on the teachers. Because, their teachings in the study
meeting were received a favorable review about educational essential points by the superintendent
of schools, teachers of the school board, the head teacher, the vice-principal and
many teachers of another school.
To develop mathematics attitude scales of teachers and students, we carried
out two examinations which were intended for 137 teachers and 332 6th grade students
in elementary schools. According to results of the exploratory factor analysis for two
examinations, values of Cronbach's α coefficients of reliability were good in factors picked
out. And also Goodness of Fit Index (GFI), Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index(AGFI),
and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) were good in validity of items
of factors picked out by confirmatory factor analysis. So we could develop mathematics
attitude scales of teachers and students through analyses and inqiries of results of two
examinations. Also we clarified relationships between mathematics attitudes of teachers
and students in comparison with common items out of items of mathematics attitudes of
teachers and students.
Daisu-gaku Seigi (Commentary on Algebra; a preparatory book for entrance
examination in algebra) written by Seiji Iwakiri was not only useful for passing entrance
exam but also excellent as an inspiring mathematics study book. Iwakiri established a
self-learning drill style of an exam prep book and strictly introduced a way of careful
checking of dividing by zero in problem solving in Daisu-gaku Seigi. Iwakiri transplanted
this drill style and way of checking zero from those in higher education to the field of exam
prep books. In this paper we discuss mathematics-educational significance of Daisu-gaku
Seigi by comparing with Fujimori's exam prep book which was very popular in that age.
In the study of arithmetic and mathematics, it is very important to observe
familiar phenomena and to model them from the mathematical point of view. For this
purpose, many teaching materials have been provided so far, and its importance has
been shown. This sort of activities of students always accompanies trial and error. By
repeating trial and error, students accumulate a lot of experiences which make further
improvement and progress. Their teaching materials have been practiced in the elective
subjects and integrated studies. But, the new Guidelines for Course of study say that
the total number of classes of elective subjects and integrated studies should reduce and
that of required subjects should increase. Therefore, in near future, we need to practice
the teaching materials mentioned above in the required subjects. In this paper, we make
up “blowgun darts” as a mathematics teaching material in the required subject, so that
students can experience the usefulness of mathematics. We report the practice of program
“Mathematics in Blowgun Darts”.
The purpose of this study is to examine the trend of mathematics
education in Singapore. The following approaches were employed in this research. The
first was to investigate the content of the mathematics textbook in elementary school.
Another was to utilize my experiences in NIE (stands for National Institute of Education
in Singapore) that were the base of the education research of Singapore for two months.
As a result of this research, the following were clarified to me. In the textbook, many
aspects that promote the thought of mathematics were in each area, and the thinking
process was explained in much space. The textbook emphasized not only the application
of mathematics to a real scene but also the advancement of the mathematical content.
Although mathematics education was influenced from an international academic ability
survey in recent years, it is necessary to reexamine the treatment of a real scene in Japanese
mathematics education from the viewpoint of the improving mathematical thinking.