As exemplified by the trend that more attention has been paid to the improvement of watersides for recreational purposes, there arises an increasing need for new creative ideas in waterside planning. This paper is an attempt to outline a circular creative systems analysis considering importance of the alternate use of two approaches such as meta-level and acta-level approaches. After some examples of recent acta-level waterside projects are shown, results of survey questionnaire are considered. The results tell us what residents think about the river, who come to the waterside of river, and where they come from. Watersides shall be the place where we can recover our humanity, which should not be denied to anyone, through the various activities we do there. Moreover, from the analysis and synthesis of visual information from pictures of watersides the desired elements of watersides are obtained.Consequently, we reach the conclusion; “The philosophy governing the spatial design of waterside recreational areas is to direct a space for minimizing the distance between human five senses and the water in the waterside environment with hard and soft technology, which is composed of geo-, eco- and socio-environments, where people will be able to understand by themselves consciously or unconsciously the cycle of destruction-creationsustenance, the transmigration and metempsychosis of life including those of humans, and individuals and others through play activities.” Finally, a case study based on this concept is shown.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of yardstick competition under alternative vertical structures in public-utility industries. In particular, the paper focuses on the relationship between its effectiveness and cost complementarities in the technologies of the constituent sectors of the industries. The paper shows that yardstick rules can implement the first-best allocation if public-utility industries are vertically integrated even with cost complementarities. In unbundling supply, however, the sequentiality of investment decisions among the constituent sectors requires the separability of cost complementarities from the private information each sector owns, in order for yardstick rules to achieve an optimal allocation.
The interaction between environmental quality, economic activity and growth does not take place in a wonderland of no geographical dimensions, but is shaped in a mutually interacting spatial system of cities, regions and countries. Consequently, regional differences in land use, economic structure, consumption, technology and environmental policy incentives impact on the environmental sustainability of an interacting global-regional system. This paper addresses the issue of environmental quality in the context of economic growth in a non-spatial economy. Spatial economic dimensions have received relatively little attention in the debate on global change, long-run growth and international trade. The present paper deals with a formalization of spatial environmental quality, from a behavioural and policy perspective, and in particular with the relationship between economic performance and environmental sustainability of a multi-regional system. The analysis is-for the sake of illustration-based on a model of two interactive regions. These regions enclose a local economy and a local environment, which directly interact. The local economies are linked through trade, while the local environments are linked through the global environment. A wide array of numerical simulation results are presented that show developments of symmetric and asymmetric regions under various scenarios. Evaluation is based on summary indicators which may be considered to play the role of welfare variables. The approach here may be considered illustrative for a class of models that combine elements of economic growth theory, bioeconomics, general equilibrium theory and theories of policy coordination. Elements of a research agenda are presented in a concluding section.