This paper is a study for economic development in Amami islands region since 1954. This region was separate from Japan since 1946 to 1953. This period was govern by U. S. Government and belonged the Ryukyu region. Income level par capita in this region is 54 U. S. dollar in 1953, but grew up 2, 278 U. S. dollar in 1975, and 155, 884 people live in 1975. This islands locate in pacific ocean and far off 200 miles from main land (Kagoshima city) in Japan. Main industries are suger cane and silk textile industries. This region was sure most underdeveloped region in Japan. But, Although this region grew up now special regional development pocity by central government, this region is not big enough yet to take the competition between regions and this region's external payments position will be not in better balance. Then, supporting to this regional economy, we will propose to special policy that including central governmental finanical aid.
We developed the Spatial Econometric Model for Japan (SPAMETRI) during the years 1970-1975. The analytical purpose of the model is to evaluate the interregional effect of a nation-wide transport invesemtnet project. The whole structure of SPAMETRI is divided into two major parts: Production-Expenditure Model (PEM) and Traffic-Transport Model (TTM). And the structure of SPAMETRI is relatively simple and ordinary, except for a unique concept of time distance or accessibility of a region. Nevertheless, because of the multi-demensional character of the model resulting from its interregional setting, the number of equation becomes extremely large. The purpose of this paper is to apply SPAMETRI to the evalulation of the economic effects of Tokaido Shinkansen and Tomei-Meishin expressway construction. For this purpose, however, we cannot utilize SPAMETRI in original form. The reason is as follows. The timee series data from 1961 to 1973 are available for the economic and demographic variables, but only 1961-1970 data are available for the transprot variables. Therefore, the equations which contain some transrpot variables have to be estimated by the data for shorter periods. Because of this limitation together with other technical difficulties, the joint ex post simulation (final test) with the PEM and TTM is possible only for 1963-1968. However, a single ex post simulation with PEM can be performed with exogenous supply of time distance variables extrapolated backward by the available data. This single simulation with PEM was carried out for 1956-1963 years. In order to evaluate the economic effects of Shinkansen and expressway constructtion, we performed simulation of six types. Numerical results of above simulations are summarized as follows. (1) The benefit-cost ratio of Shinkansen construction investment is approximately 1.4 times of the ratio of construction investment in the ordinary railway. As to the costs of construction investment, both are equivalent. Compared with the ordinary railway, Shinkansen has only a little effect on the regional decentralization of income produced. (2) The benefit-cost ratio of expressway construction investment is 1.755 times of the ratio of construction investement in the ordinary road. Compared with the ordinary road, the expressway has an effect on the regional centralization of income produced.
Taking into account the conservation of a regional water environment, the allocation of the water resoruces should be deisgned not to achieve the economic optimization in an industrial activity but to conserve the water environment. The industrial activity plan is to design, regarding the allocation of the water resoruces as a constraint. From the above standpoint, the allocation of water resporuces including the assessement of the load impact on a coastal sea is analzyed in this paper. There is a strong correlation between the water quality in a river and a sewerage equipment. Hence, using the annual change of the sewerage equipmentas a parameter, it is shown that when and how much the water resoruces is to be allocated in each region. The BOD load and the flow in the river is shown as a function of the water resoruces distribution and the level of the sewerage equipment; state equations are constructed; constraints and an objective function are presented. The model is a control process and able to solve by the method of a maximum principle. It is shown that the aforementioned model can be applied efficiently in the actual river basin.
In this paper, we would deal with the following two problems concerning the quantitative evaluation of metropolitan management strategies by means of the metropolitan management system which is constructed by using the regional econometric model as a core of the system. Firstly, we would try to compile the total system which consists of three sub-sectors; economic sector, fiscal sector and social welfare sector. Secondaly, our concern in this paper would be to evaluate quantitatively the metropolitan management policy by using simulation technique of this system. The basic structure of this system is shown as Figure 1.
In 1977, the Thrid Comprehensive National Development Plan of Japan, which included the concept of “Settled Areas”, was published. Surely, the most important consideration of this concept is that employment opportunities be secured in each of these “Settled Areas”. This is because the flow of migration from non-metropolitan to metropolitan areas is caused by the imbalance of employment opportunity between the former and the latter. In Japan, there is also evidence of migratory flow to prefectural divisions (“Koiki-ken”) in which prefectural capitals are located from prefectural divisions where they are not. In view of these phenomena, we may describe migration in Japan as being “two-tiered”. I am of the opinion that, in Japan, the prefectural division is more suited as a unit of regional analysis than the prefecture itself, especially when considering factors such as population, labour force, etc. This report is a study of the present conditions in the prefectural divisions of the Kanto, Tohoku and Hokkaido Regions and pays attention to the ratio, in each division, of the labour force engaged in agriculture, manufacturing industry, commerce, service industries, etc. In all probability, the most important employment category for regional policy today is the manufacturing industry. Between 1960 and 1965, the ratio of the labour force in manufacturing increased in the belt surrounding Tokyo, whilst between 1965 and 1970, it rose outside this belt, in the prefectural divisions of the Northern Kanto Region and the Southern Tohoku Region. Between 1970 and 1975, the population engaged in manfuacturing in the Southern Kanto Region declined, but that in the Tohoku Region increased gradually, while its share of agricultural population fell rapidly. Whilst the early stages of development involved the transfer of labour from agriculture (primary industrial activity) to manufacturing (secondary industrial activity), I believe that the key point of regional policy today is the next stage, viz: where the population settled in an area is increased in a manner corresponding to the increase in manfuacturing activity in that area, so that it may provide a stable base for the establishment and development of tertiary industrial activity.
Basic industry will become trigger for industrialization if the municipal corporation gives financial support appropriately to the industries in the region. This paper refers to the optimal investment for financial support in the view point of maximization of income from the industries. The process of Analysis is, (1) to make the model of real system using system Dynamics (SD) (2) to simplify the SD model (3) to convert the simplified SD model into optimal control model (4) to solve the optimal control model (5) to apply the solution to the original SD model. Now we omitted the process (2) to simplify. Fig. 4 shows the solutions based on the optimal policy and originally planned policy. The income integrated for thirtyone years on the optimal policy is over twice on the planned policy.
Water resource systems as the basic components of the regional economic activities have not been explicitly considered in the past regional econometric models. Our research purpose is to examine empirically the hypothesis that if a water resource is not able to move, then interregional population migration and the industrial structure would be changed depending upon such conditions as regional water resource systems and the other economic conditions. Relationships between water resoruce systems and regional economic activities in two regions, the one has an ample water resource and the other has not, are modelled in this paper. The new features of the model are (i) the investment functions with a new-water price variable and an abatement cost of water pollution, (ii) population functions, especially a migration flow function with the water demands of households, (iii) the production functions for industrial sector as new and recycling water demand functions, (iv) a price formation function of new water, and (v) a set of functions of water pollution behaviors.
In this paper we are concerned with examining some of the methodologies based on utility approach for evaluating environmental systems planning, introducing a new, alternative device to them, and presenting a demonstration of its application to environmental problems in the industrialized greater Osaka area. This paper is composed of three topics. First, the main concepts of the utility approach are briefly reviewed and examined from the point of view of multiobjective systems analysis, and some defects of this approach are considered. Second, a new method which we call the Nested Lagrangian Multiplier Method (or NLM method) is introduced and compared with conventional utility approaches, and theoretical background of it are scrutinized. Third, a demonstration of its use in environmental systems planning in the greater Osaka area is presented. Finally, it is recalled that utilization of optimization methods for comprehensive economic plannings would simultaneously provide optimal solutions for allocation as well as evaluation problems based on duality of mathematical programming.
The purpose of this paper is to research the possibility on the reallocation of the urban central business functions, using the two mathematical models of the analyzing the mechanism of the concentration to the Tokyo metro-politan area and the emprical studies. One is a macroscopic model of two area allocation process of urban functions. Another is a microscopic information and communication model of office locations. The empirical studies have been done at the Tokyo and Osaka Metropolitan area. The conclusion is that it is almost impossible to reallooate the central business functions in Japan.
In this paper, we in the first place try to show the direction and magnitude of migtation within Okinawa for past five decades and point out that rapid out-migration from agriculture and rural areas to nonfarm urban is one of phenomena characteristic to postwar Okinawa. Then, we discuss some factors that causes migration. The gap in per capita incomes and public services such as education and medical services are appreciated as important ones. It must however be recognized that there is no evidence that the rapid rate of out-migration has appreciably closed the gaps. Finally we see that there are indications that the out-migration, especially that in younger age group, has strained the social and economic structure of many lagging regions causing serious problems for school, medical services, local business and cultural activities. And it is stressed that policies be taken to close the gap at least in the public services.
This report is the approach to the restraining conditions of island soceity and it's development from the following aspects; 1. Impact of international condition 2. Regional develpment policy of government 3. Restraining conditions of remoted island Especially, this report puts emphasis on the depopulated problem of satellite island in Okinawa prefecture. In order to find out some solutions, this report tries to come up with a conception of the “island minimum”, meaning social minimum for survival of island soceity.
The purpose of this paper is to provide the problems underlie in urban areas of Okinawa prefecture. These areas have two main characteristics. The first one is that the construction of the main cities in Okinawa were greatly influenced by the U. S. Military base. The second is that many of the functions are over concentrated in Naha city, the largest city of Okinawa, and in turn, this fact has produced so many problems to be solved for a future expansion or development of the economy. This report, therefore, tries to present such urban problems as reallocation of city functions, trafic, economic stability of cities, and etc., and to point out a necessity of big projects needed to solve the above mentioned problems.
It was the construction of military bases that had put the biggest impact on post-war Okinawan society. Construction and maintenance of bases for the U. S. Forces were to give signfiicant and overall changes in social, cultural, and economic conditions, as well as natural conditions, and resulted in the formation of present regional structures of population, land use, cities, and industries. The purpose of this paper is to point out some problematic ecnomic aspects of military bases in Okinawa and give suggestion for regional economic development.
This paper is prepared to introduce the general Okinawan economic characteristics and problems through which those discussants and participants who may not have enough background on the economy as a whole of this country are expected to be given some useful informations or foundations needed for discussions. The economy of Okinawa was used to be called as Military Base Economy. This simply meant that the energy or demand originated in the U. S. Military Base was the biggest wheel drove the post-war economy of Okinawa. This unique and huge energy created many economic problems one of which may be the prevalent unbalanced industrial structure in which the thirtial industry alone occupies approximately 75% of the total income of the country, the second and primary industries being around only 20% and 5% respectively. The Base economy also lfet an urbanization problem in one hand and a depopulated problem on the other. As the result; Okinawan economy has still been in so called “leaking economy”, of which multiplier is roughly only 1.4 in average. Furthermore, it has the problem of income disparities not only among industries, but also among areas. Keeping these problems in mind, the writer has raised the ten debatalbe questions related to the economic development of Okinawa.