The purpose of this study is to find out what advancement of the traffic facilities has influenced on the regional structures. It is very important, from the viewpoint of traffic planning, to make clear definitely the transfigured conditions of the regional structures that are caused by the advancement of the traffic facilities. In order to accomplish this purpose, the author has applied the structures of the city-region and the concept of the demographic energy. The city-region means the regional sphere which involves the central city and its outlying area mutually connected. And the demographic energy was suggested by Stewart, J. Q. We can recognize the regional sphere which is influenced by the advancement of the traffic facilities making use of the structures of the city-region. And with the aid of the demographic energy, we can grasp the degree of the influences. On the other hand we know that the formation of the urban complex (the Dynapolis) is an effective means for the regional development. So, the author has proposed some methods which investigate the possibility of the formation of the Dynapolis by using the structures of the city-region and by applying the concept of the demographic energy. Subsequently, the studied areas selected for the application of the proposed methods are 123 cities in Japan at the Census of 1965. These cities include all the cities with more than 100, 000 population.
Social and economic influence due to large-scale industrial development in Mutsu-Ogawara area was studied by the System Dynamics (SD) method with computer. A simplified model (Model I) was proposed for its purpose previously. By improving and extending the Model I, a new model (Model II) which is illustrated by the flow-diagram in Figure 2 is proposed in this paper. The Model II is constructed by the following dominant constitutent elements: kombinat (petroleum refining and petrochemical industries and electric power plants), secondary industries other than the above, population (classified by sex and age), labor (classified by status), commercial and entertainment service, tax, public investment (school, hospital etc), environmental pollution and primary industries. The Model II is described in DYNAMO containing about 400 equations. The social and economic influence is simulated by the Model II for fifteen cases using some probable assumptions in Mutsu-Ogawara area. Some of their results are shown in Figures 3 and 4. It can be said from the results that the Model II is adequate to the simulation of Mutsu-Ogawara area. To verify this study, the simplified model based on the Model II was applied to Kasima area which was an industial area similar to Mutsu-Ogawara area and the results of this simulation were compared with the data (see Figure 5 and Table 1). Further investigation will be done from the following points of view: 1) refinement of logical framework of the model 2) accuracy of data and their effects on the results 3) methodology
Urban transportation system expected to be reformed so as to keep necessary standards of air purity. Although successful strategy mainly depends on accelation of technical improvement of combustion engine system, the standards of it's restriction for 1978 will not be enough in the city center of Osaka where traffic density is 220 thousand Km. trips per day per square Km, 5 times higher than that of the fringe part of the city. This is the reason why transportation system should be reformed in the city of Osaka. It is proposed in the BIG plan of Osaka prefecture that about a half of all traffic estimated in the city should be cut down to recover clean air. It is easy to lessen traffic volume technically by traffic control if there is no shock to local economy and urban activities. This diminution will change functional proportion of city core and normal form of metropolis, generally speaking, it will cause dispersion. It should be careful to disperse car traffic from city core to fringe simply without examining economic impact. Compact city might be better to save land, energy and time.
1. Basic Viewpoint on the Maintenanace and Reallocation of Urban Environments (1) Concept of the Urban Environmental System An urban environment with its organic relations of natural, social and economic facilities constitutes a system of its own. Consequently an urban environmental system should be defined not only by its ecological and natural conditions, but social and economic conditions, and its efficiency and safety should be guaranteed for the total of these conditions. (2) Analysis of Indicators of Urban Environments In order to grasp the conditions of an urban environmental system, indicators of urban environments were set and their overall analysis was attempted. First, the situation of air pollution was analyzed by means of indicator plants, and the degrees of pollution were classified into several ranks for the analysis of local ecological conditions. Secondly, the socio-economic conditions centering around the supply conditions of public goods were compared between various localities (with a city, town, or village, as a unit of comparison) to examine the levels of distribution of public goods. Thirdly, the degree of urbanization and the distribution of the residual green belts in various localities were surveyed and analyzed. 2. Classification of Green Environments (1) Evaluation and Classification of Urban Environments The indicators of urban environments were observed, and their overall results were used to classify the environmental conditions in the areas within a radius of 50 kilometers from the center of the metropolitan zone. Urban areas with more than average levels of artificial environmental goods but with deteriorated conditions regarding green belts and ecological environment were found more often in the old urban area, while those areas with less than average levels of artificial environmental goods but with relatively good levels of green belts and ecological environment were frequently found in the rural areas outside the urban area. The newly developed urban areas between these two types of areas were found fraught with environmental difficulties because of inadequate methods of development. Their levels of artificial environmental goods were inadequate, and many of them faced such disruptions as rapid destruction of green belts and increasingly smaller segmentalization in the use of land. The congestion in urbanization was represented in these areas, which were urgently required to make overall solutions of the development of the urban environmental system. (2) Evaluation and Classification of Green Environments The levels of green environmental goods in various localities were determined through the classification of the areas by the environmental indicators, and then the functions and distribution of the green environmental goods were examined. The green environments are largely classified into parks, farms and forests. The parks in the zone studied were generally limited in number, and their levels were far lower than those in the urban areas in the developed countries of the West. In the newly developed urban areas, farms and forests were destroyed, and their irregular developments interfered the proper progress of the land utilization. For the green areas in the zone between 30 and 50 kilometers from the metropolitan center, steps of conservation should be taken urgently in the orderly development and utilization of land. The development and distribution of urban parks and green areas are needed as the daily area of recreation for the urban inhabitants. Regarding the green belts for agriculture and forestry as found in the Tama highland range, Miura and Boso peninsulas, steps of preservation should be taken for the green belts connecting woods in old mansions, forests in Shrines, and green areas in river beds along with the development as the suburban agricultural areas.
The purpose of this study is to clearify the theoretical relations between two streams of studies on urban residential theory. One is the market equilibrium models which are typically represented by the works by Alonso and Muth. The other is the programming models originated by Herbert and Stevens. It is first proved that the optimum solution of Herbert and Stevens model coincides with the market equilbirium solution of Alonso-Muth model under certain conditions. The necessary and sufficient conditions are obtainded for this coincidence. Then, by using this result, the Pareto optimality of the equilibrium solution in Alonso-Muth model is proved. A theoritical property of the market clearing submodel in the recent NBER urban simulation model is also clearified. It is further shown that these results enable us to transform market equilibrium models of urban activities into equivalent programming models. Thus the computational difficulty in obtaining the equilibrium solution can be overcomed by using this method. In the second part of this paper, these results in static models are extended into dynamic cases. For this purpose, dynamic extensions of Alonso-Muth model and Herbert-Stevens model are first obtained. Then, each result in the above static case is generalized into the dynamic case by using these two models. It is shown these correspondence relations are quite useful, for example, in the analysis of the stability property of the equilibrium path in the original problem.
In Japan, urbanization has rapidly raised the land prices in suburban area as a residencial town in recent years. Because of the lack of the fund for social overhead capital investment, local governments can't afford to newly purchase the required land for public use. The purposes of this paper are to analyze the economy of a suburban city, and to develop an operational method for city planning through the following three items, as the case study of Mitaka city in Tokyo. i) New econometric model building with two sets of distribution functions on population and land price, so called the second Mitaka model. ii) Long-term projection of Mitaka city by the model. iii) Quantitative analysis on the land available for public use in the period of the plan. It suggests that the above methods can connect micro indices consisted of physical plan on given point and/or mesh with macro economic indices, on i), and can analyze the feasibility of plan, more concretely, on ii) and iii).