地域学研究
Online ISSN : 1880-6465
Print ISSN : 0287-6256
ISSN-L : 0287-6256
45 巻 , 3 号
選択された号の論文の9件中1~9を表示しています
論文
  • 青木 慎
    原稿種別: 論文
    2015 年 45 巻 3 号 p. 241-255
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2016/03/09
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    This paper examines the dynamics and conditions for stabilization when the central bank adopts a monetary policy with discretion in the growth rate of a nominal money supply, especially during a ‘short run’ Keynesian model with a liquidity trap. In addition, the formalization of the expected inflation is a mixture of ‘forward looking’ and ‘backward looking’. The framework of the macro model is based on Asada ([7]).
    We focus on the mixed-type formalization of expected inflation with ‘backward looking’ to evaluate the performance of the policy. If the speed of the aggregate demand influenced by the growth rate of real money is sufficiently small positive value, even though credibility of inflation targeting is not sufficient, the central bank can stabilize and optimize a macro economy with a discretionary commitment policy. However, if the speed of adjustment of the aggregate demand influenced by the growth rate of the real money is larger than 1, the discretionary commitment policy does not accomplish stabilization and optimization in the system.
    JEL Classification:E52, E61, E62
  • 永井 慧, 木南 莉莉
    原稿種別: 論文
    2015 年 45 巻 3 号 p. 257-269
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2016/03/09
    ジャーナル 認証あり
      Although Japanese agriculture faces serious issues such as aging and decreasing farmers, the number of people working in the farming sector with employment in agricultural corporations is increasing. On the other hand, agricultural corporations in Japan face problems of workers quitting their jobs at an early stage of employment, this indicates there exists a mismatch of employment in the agricultural corporations. 
    However, existing studies on Human Resource Management in Japan mainly focus on the consciousness of managers and employees in agricultural corporations, although it is necessary to understand job candidates for the agricultural corporations to reduce the problems in mismatches. 
    Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the characteristics of attributes and motivation toward work in job candidates at agricultural corporations by analyzing the results of an interview survey, group-interview and questionnaire survey with simple and cross tabulations and quantitative analysis.
    The following analytical results were obtained. First, job candidates for agricultural corporations as a whole have “Personal intentions” and “Work-Life balance intentions” as motivation to work. However, the results from career intention show that candidates who want to be an independent farm manager have “Search intentions” and “Challenge intentions”. Candidates who want to be a manager of an agricultural corporation have “Search intentions” and “Personal intentions”. Candidates who want to engage in farm work have “Work-Life balance intentions”. In contrast, candidates who want to obtain a job have “Passive and Stable intentions”.
    Additionally, from the results of the quantitative analysis on significant differences in previous employment, agricultural experience, social insurance and request for working hours for candidates who have definite purposes were obtained. Furthermore, significant differences in agricultural experience, sustainability of management, support for independence, vacation days and work values for candidates who want to be an independent farm manager, want to join management and want to engage in farm work were also obtained as well.
    Based on the results discussed above, we conclude the management side of agricultural corporations need to check the mismatchs between strategy for employment and consciousness of job candidates to provide effective HRM policies and practices for improving problem of mismatch in agricultural corporations. However, the results of the interview-survey clarified that government projects lack long-term perspective toward employment and human resource cultivation in agricultural corporations.
    JEL Classifications:Q120
  • 朝日 ちさと, 萩原 清子
    原稿種別: 論文
    2015 年 45 巻 3 号 p. 271-291
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2016/03/09
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    Japan has experienced a number of large-scale disasters such as earthquakes and floods, so social demand for provisions, replacements and maintenance of infrastructures against the risks are requires. However, both national and regional governments have difficulties to finance the needs because of the rapid aging of society, increasing social security costs, and burden of the government debt. Therefore, public investment needs to be evaluated to account for efficient resource allocation.
    Benefits under uncertainty in practice are basically calculated in terms of the expected value for physical and human damages, while the use and estimates of monetary valuation of “anxiety for an uncertain situation” as a risk premium is an important issue for a cost-benefit analysis (MLIT, 2009). Asahi and Hagihara (2010 and 2013) showed the idea of vulnerability for infrastructure services and concluded the decision of public provision level needs to be considered from the viewpoint of household capacity for risk management and it is essential to understand the characteristic factors in decision making processes that household choice under uncertainty take into account.
    This paper investigates these factors using data from questionnaires on municipal water cutoff risk as a case study. We focused on two decision making frameworks:the traditional decision making under risk and the prospect theory. Whether risk averting behaviors and risk-cost tradeoff choices for water cut-off risk are affected by the risk aversion index, risk perception, and the reference point effect was examined with the logit regression and an interval regression analysis.
    Our main conclusion is that risk preference in terms of monetary scale does not affect the choice of a household in the case of water cut-off risk, whereas risk perception does. The reference point effect in the combination of loss aversion and probability evaluation was observed in the household choice experiment concerning risk-cost trade-off in water pipe network investment. These findings should be considered in an economic valuation model of vulnerability or risk premium for a better micro-based welfare measurement of public investment.
    JEL Classification:D61, D81, H54, H43
研究ノート
  • 川本 清美
    原稿種別: 研究ノート
    2015 年 45 巻 3 号 p. 293-304
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2016/03/09
    ジャーナル 認証あり
      This paper discusses the development of a social capital (SC) propagation model which affects local mutual aid after an earthquake disaster. Mutual aid within community residences (local mutual aid) is important before the arrival of public help or volunteers. Citizen networks or trusts are measured as SC, and SC is related to local mutual aid. The case study cities Sendai and Hamamatsu, Japan were used for a web survey administrated to collect local mutual aid data. A logit model was used to determine factors that affect local mutual aid. Multi-Agent Simulation was used to develop the SC propagation model. As a result, the model recognized that trust, interaction and exchange, community disaster recovery potential and neighborhood behavior affect local mutual aid behavior. Experiencing a disaster encourages the creation of neighborhood networks to provide local mutual aid. In the case of cities with a higher percentage of the younger generation, local mutual aid with neighborhood networks is effective during the safety confirmation stage and aftershock stage. Moreover, when movers who are able to provide mutual aid assist the last 10% of the fixed persons who are unable to provide mutual aid, the fixed persons’ density affects the overall behavior of local mutual aid assistance.
    JEL Classification:Q54, R00, R58
  • 吉田 真悟, 八木 洋憲, 木南 章
    原稿種別: 研究ノート
    2015 年 45 巻 3 号 p. 305-316
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2016/03/09
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    Revision of the Productive Green Land Act in 1992 and the related taxation system affected urban farmer decisions on long-term land use. The purpose of this paper is to clarify factors affecting the land use by urban farmers through changes in farm household economy, especially characteristics of business, land tax and land price. We illustrate how changes in land use influence the farm household economy.
    Structured interviews were conducted with three urban farmers in Nerima Ward on the details of their business in July 2014. The economic performances for land use of each farmer were analyzed by calculations of net present return in land not only with the same method used in previous studies but also with our “Time-Varying Models” that can evaluate the effects of changes in an economic environment and taxation system.
    Major findings are as follows. Productive Green Land has no negative effect on the expected acreage of land that can be sold from an urban farmer inheritance, because tax payment for the inherited land is comparatively low even when the land price is high. In contrast, potentially developable farmland, which is taxed at the same rate as residential land, has a negative effect on the farm household economy. Therefore, the economic performance of a parking lot highly depends on profitability and land price, whereas, an apartment rental business has a positive effect on the expected acreage of land that can be sold, because such sales benefit from special tax reductions related to both property tax and inheritance tax.
    We recommend that urban farmers who try to preserve their farmland should choose a land use that will positively influence their farm household economy. Especially, potentially developable farmland and land for their home significantly worsen a farm household economy.
    JEL Classification:Q15, R14
事例研究
  • 枝川 明敬
    原稿種別: 事例研究
    2015 年 45 巻 3 号 p. 317-331
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2016/03/09
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    A hypothesis was adopted through findings obtained through analysis in the Kanto and Tokai Regions, that tangible folklore cultural assets became a driving force in building communities and developing unique human resources in Japan. Cultural assets began disappearing from people’s daily life during the era of rapid economic growth. Japan’s industrial and social conditions changed dramatically, thus effecting people’s lifestyles. Tangible folklore cultural assets, which existed in communities, were instrumental in forming the identity of these communities. The area covered by a 2011 study of the Kanto Region, which includes the Tokyo Metropolitan area, shows the effects on the lifestyle of the communities to be very prominent, due to urbanization of the area.
    The latest survey also included a field trip to the Seto-uchi Region in Western Japan. The results from this survey showed that the devices and tools manufactured there around the Meiji period were mainly used during the Meiji, Taisho and Showa periods. However, the tools and religious devices manufactured in the region during the Edo period were not used until after the end of World War II. This was not the cases for the Kanto (2011) and Tokai regions (2012). It was also found that the cultural assets in the Seto-uchi region continued to be used until the latter half of the era, when there was rapid economic growth, a finding also seen in the surveys in the Kanto and Tokai Regions. In all the regions, people effectively stopped using the devices in the latter half of the eras, because of the downturn in economic growth.  However, it was found that the assets were used longer in the Seto-uchi region. Long-standing use covering the Edo period to the second half of the Showa period was seen in many devices and tools manufactured in the Tokai Region. However, devices used for a long time in the Seto-uchi Region were basically limited to manufacturing instruments, providing products for entertainment, leisure and amusement.
    JEL Classification:H54, R51, R53, Z11
  • 堀江 典子, 萩原 清子, 木村 富美子, 朝日 ちさと
    原稿種別: 事例研究
    2015 年 45 巻 3 号 p. 333-349
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2016/03/09
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    Supply systems for various public goods change with changes in socioeconomic circumstances. Green spaces in urban areas such as parks and roadside greenery have various functions, including environmental preservation, landscape, recreation and disaster prevention. Recently, many cities try to increase green space in both public-owned and private-owned areas. Public-owned greeneries include urban parks with various facilities, roadside greeneries, riverside areas, agricultural parks, retention basin, public school sites, cultural facility sites, government building sites, and other public accommodations. Private-owned greeneries include leased land parks, nongovernmental athletic fields, greenery around factory sites, greenery in commercial and business sites, private school sites, private gardens, and zoning sites designated by law or city regulations.
    However, to determine how and by which sector, public or private, these green spaces should be supplied, it is necessary to clarify the relationships between the characteristics of green space as public goods, which show non-excludability and non-competitiveness, and the supply of these spaces. This study concentrates on the relationships between these characteristics and the supply of greenery. The use and supply of green space in Saitama City, which has a large area and variety of greenery spaces, was examined through administrative documents.
    Consequently, we showed there are various green spaces supplied by various procedures. Green spaces of non-excludability and competitiveness are supplied by the public sector. Green spaces of non-excludability are supported by volunteers. Greenery of excludability is regulated by administrations. Characteristics as public goods of the use of greenery space appear to reflect city policies and citizen needs, such as necessities for revitalization of agricultural land and enthusiasm for sports activities. Greenery supply systems need to be reconsidered as regional positive choices after due consideration of the characteristics as public goods.
    JEL Classification:H41, H23, R59
  • 水上 象吾
    原稿種別: 事例研究
    2015 年 45 巻 3 号 p. 351-367
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2016/03/09
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    The purpose of this study was to verify residents consciousness about the advantageous effects of vacant lots in urban residential areas.
    In this area people have close contact with neighbors, so a group territory is built up. Residents think of vacant lots as their own space in the area. Therefore, safety and crime prevention are maintained. I verified the hypothesis that resident consciousness of the advantageous effects of a vacant lot is increased. Further, I focused on the function of a vacant lot as a green space and considered issues of maintenance.
    As a result, it was found that residents recognize differences in the utility value and existence value, so it is possible that residents in a group territory think vacant lots have a high utilization effect.
    The relationships between attributes of residents and group territory were also explored. Results indicated that resident regional action and aggressiveness as well as consciousness of activity make a territory group. Green space is the highest demand for vacant lots. Administrator management problems include overgrowth of weeds, growth of insects, devastation of scenery and dumping of garbage in the worst situation. There are insufficient trimming of the greenery in many vacant lots. However, residents gladly participate in regional maintenance of greenery and flowers. There is a possibility that vacant lots are maintained and green. Residents who have a desire to participate in maintenance tend to have affections for the region. Environmental arrangements and maintenance connects the regional community.
    These results show that participation in maintenance of a vacant lot provides a sense of meaning for a regional community. It is necessary to consider what effects the regional community receives from vacant lots and their utilization.
    JEL Classification:O18, P28, Q51
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