α1-Acid glycoprotein (AGP) is an acute-phase glycoprotein with five N-linked glycans, exhibiting substantial heterogeneity in their structures. This heterogeneity results from the presence in plasma of various distinct AGP glycoforms of which the plasma levels, and thus the relative occurrence of these glycoforms, are strictly dependent on the pathophysiological condition determined by cytokines and hormones. These humoral factors induce changes in the glycosylation process of the parenchymal liver cells, which are independent of the rate of synthesis of the AGP aglycon. Results are reviewed regarding the characterization and regulation of the changes in glycosylation of AGP under various physiological and pathological states, as well as the possible anti-inflammatory effects of different AGP glycoforms.
Research on the legume lectins is rapidly leading to an understanding of the relationship of the structures of these proteins to their activities. The present review considers how our information on the structures, distribution and activities of the legume lectins is providing new insights into the functions of these proteins and the roles they may play in the plant.
This is a brief guide for those who want to search for the structures in the Complex Carbohydrate Structure Database (CCSD) by using the CarbBank web pages. The aim of this tutorial is to provide the basic concepts of the database to scientists accustomed to using a personal computer, but who are unfamiliar with doing an online search on the Internet. We have illustrated useful procedures including user registration, search techniques, and methods of saving and printing search results, together with some practical tips.