Trends in Glycoscience and Glycotechnology
Online ISSN : 1883-2113
Print ISSN : 0915-7352
Volume 29 , Issue 165
Showing 1-8 articles out of 8 articles from the selected issue
MINIREVIEW
  • Ryo Okamoto
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 165 Pages E1-E10
    Published: January 25, 2017
    Released: January 25, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Chemical or chemoenzymatic synthesis is an emerging approach to produce homogeneous glycoproteins with structurally defined forms. Modern synthetic techniques are capable of the preparation of complex glycoproteins. This minireview especially focuses on the several latest syntheses of N-glycoproteins that generally have relatively large glycan moieties. The structurally defined glycoproteins can be a novel material for understanding molecular basis of glycoprotein functions or the next generation of biopharmaceuticals.

    Download PDF (4527K)
  • Yasuhiko Kizuka
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 165 Pages E11-E18
    Published: January 25, 2017
    Released: January 25, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Glycans are essential components of higher organisms, exhibiting highly sophisticated expression and complex functions. In particular, unique glycan structures are highly expressed in the nervous system, and play essential roles in higher order brain functions such as learning and memory. In this review, I focus on three unique neural glycans, namely, human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) epitope, branched O-mannose glycans, and bisecting GlcNAc, and describe regulation of their expression, what functions they exhibit, and how they are involved in various neural diseases including demyelination and dementia. Various mechanisms are involved in regulation of their expression, including enzyme complex formation, enzyme localization, alternative splicing, and (epi)genetics. Furthermore, mutant mice deficient for these glycans display improved pathology in demyelination and dementia, suggesting that biosynthetic pathways for these glycans could be novel targets for disease therapy. Further understanding of their function and development of new probes and inhibitors for these glycans may lead to future novel strategies for basic and clinical glycosciences.

    Download PDF (2907K)
  • Hirokazu Yagi
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 165 Pages E19-E25
    Published: January 25, 2017
    Released: January 25, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    In the nervous system, there are a number of oligosaccharides associated with neural-cell differentiation and higher-order brain functions. To examine these functions, it has been developed useful glycomics tools, including a sugar library and a novel sequencing method, for functional glycomics in the nervous system. These glycemic tools have enable us to find neural-specific glycan in the model organism Ciona intestinalis and demonstrat the function of specific glycans related to neural stem-cell differentiation and a laminin binding glycans that cause congenital muscular dystrophies.

    Download PDF (2344K)
GLYCOTOPIC
MINIREVIEW (Jpn. Ed.)
  • Ryo Okamoto
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 165 Pages J1-J11
    Published: January 25, 2017
    Released: January 25, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Chemical or chemoenzymatic synthesis is an emerging approach to produce homogeneous glycoproteins with structurally defined forms. Modern synthetic techniques are capable of the preparation of complex glycoproteins. This minireview especially focuses on the several latest syntheses of N-glycoproteins that generally have relatively large glycan moieties. The structurally defined glycoproteins can be a novel material for understanding molecular basis of glycoprotein functions or the next generation of biopharmaceuticals.

    Download PDF (4728K)
  • Yasuhiko Kizuka
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 165 Pages J13-J20
    Published: January 25, 2017
    Released: January 25, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Glycans are essential components of higher organisms, exhibiting highly sophisticated expression and complex functions. In particular, unique glycan structures are highly expressed in the nervous system, and play essential roles in higher order brain functions such as learning and memory. In this review, I focus on three unique neural glycans, namely, human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) epitope, branched O-mannose glycans, and bisecting GlcNAc, and describe regulation of their expression, what functions they exhibit, and how they are involved in various neural diseases including demyelination and dementia. Various mechanisms are involved in regulation of their expression, including enzyme complex formation, enzyme localization, alternative splicing, and (epi)genetics. Furthermore, mutant mice deficient for these glycans display improved pathology in demyelination and dementia, suggesting that biosynthetic pathways for these glycans could be novel targets for disease therapy. Further understanding of their function and development of new probes and inhibitors for these glycans may lead to future novel strategies for basic and clinical glycosciences.

    Download PDF (3064K)
  • Hirokazu Yagi
    2017 Volume 29 Issue 165 Pages J21-J27
    Published: January 25, 2017
    Released: January 25, 2017
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    In the nervous system, there are a number of oligosaccharides associated with neural-cell differentiation and higher-order brain functions. To examine these functions, it has been developed useful glycomics tools, including a sugar library and a novel sequencing method, for functional glycomics in the nervous system. These glycemic tools have enable us to find neural-specific glycan in the model organism Ciona intestinalis and demonstrat the function of specific glycans related to neural stem-cell differentiation and a laminin binding glycans that cause congenital muscular dystrophies.

    Download PDF (2530K)
GLYCOTOPIC (Jpn. Ed.)
feedback
Top