Trends in Glycoscience and Glycotechnology
Online ISSN : 1883-2113
Print ISSN : 0915-7352
Volume 28 , Issue 163
Showing 1-8 articles out of 8 articles from the selected issue
MINIREVIEW
  • Angélica Maciel Gomes, Dovile Sinkeviciute, Hinke A. B. Multhau ...
    2016 Volume 28 Issue 163 Pages E79-E90
    Published: September 25, 2016
    Released: September 25, 2016
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS
    Virtually all animal cells express heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Syndecans are a major group of transmembrane proteoglycans functioning as receptors that mediate signal transmission from the extracellular microenvironment to the cell. Their heparan sulfate chains, due to their vast structural diversity, interact with a wide array of ligands including potent regulators of adhesion, migration, growth and survival. Frequently, ligands interact with cell surface heparan sulfate in conjunction with high affinity receptors. The consequent signaling can therefore be complex, but it is now known that syndecans are capable of independent signaling. This review is divided in two sections, and will first discuss how the assembly of heparan sulfate, the anabolic process, encodes information related to ligand binding and signaling. Second, we discuss how, in partial catabolic processes, new roles for HSPGs emerge that affect cell behavior. Examples from tumor studies are emphasized, since HSPGs may be altered in composition and distribution and may also represent targets for the development of new therapeutics.
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  • Yoichiro Harada
    2016 Volume 28 Issue 163 Pages E91-E96
    Published: September 25, 2016
    Released: September 25, 2016
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS
    Dolichol-linked oligosaccharides (DLOs) synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells serve as glycan donor substrates for N-glycosylation. Consequently, impairments in the biosynthesis of DLOs result in hypoglycosylation of multiple proteins and disrupt cellular homeostasis. While it has long been recognized that both mammalian cells and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have intrinsic mechanisms to breakdown DLOs, the physiological significance of this pathway remains elusive. This article summarizes the current state of our knowledge on the biosynthesis and degradation of DLOs and discusses their regulatory mechanisms.
    Download PDF (1179K)
GLYCOTOPIC
MINIREVIEW (Jpn. Ed.)
  • Angélica Maciel Gomes, Dovile Sinkeviciute, Hinke A. B. Multhau ...
    2016 Volume 28 Issue 163 Pages J77-J88
    Published: September 25, 2016
    Released: September 25, 2016
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS
    Virtually all animal cells express heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Syndecans are a major group of transmembrane proteoglycans functioning as receptors that mediate signal transmission from the extracellular microenvironment to the cell. Their heparan sulfate chains, due to their vast structural diversity, interact with a wide array of ligands including potent regulators of adhesion, migration, growth and survival. Frequently, ligands interact with cell surface heparan sulfate in conjunction with high affinity receptors. The consequent signaling can therefore be complex, but it is now known that syndecans are capable of independent signaling. This review is divided in two sections, and will first discuss how the assembly of heparan sulfate, the anabolic process, encodes information related to ligand binding and signaling. Second, we discuss how, in partial catabolic processes, new roles for HSPGs emerge that affect cell behavior. Examples from tumor studies are emphasized, since HSPGs may be altered in composition and distribution and may also represent targets for the development of new therapeutics.
    Download PDF (1833K)
  • Yoichiro Harada
    2016 Volume 28 Issue 163 Pages J89-J94
    Published: September 25, 2016
    Released: September 25, 2016
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS
    Dolichol-linked oligosaccharides (DLOs) synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells serve as glycan donor substrates for N-glycosylation. Consequently, impairments in the biosynthesis of DLOs result in hypoglycosylation of multiple proteins and disrupt cellular homeostasis. While it has long been recognized that both mammalian cells and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have intrinsic mechanisms to breakdown DLOs, the physiological significance of this pathway remains elusive. This article summarizes the current state of our knowledge on the biosynthesis and degradation of DLOs and discusses their regulatory mechanisms.
    Download PDF (1329K)
GLYCOTOPIC (Jpn. Ed.)
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