So far cyclodextrin have been the most popular and successful scaffold for creation of enzyme mimics and models. In this paper the literature describing cyclodextrin derivatives that perform Michaelis-Menten kinetics is reviewed.
In this mini review, the development of glycomaterials for inhibition of protein amyloidosis is described. It has been pointed out that saccharide-protein interactions are related to the amyloidosis but there are few investigations available to clarify the saccharide functions in amyloidosis and to utilize them. We approached amyloidosis with the utilization of saccharide materials in mind. We regard saccharides as an assembly of functional modules and the saccharides were thus reconstructed as materials to utilize them for analysis and inhibition of amyloidosis.
It has been reported that the conjugation of carbohydrate to proteins can promote the nuclear import of proteins (1-4). In this minireview, based on our recent data, we discuss the effect of carbohydrates on the nuclear import using quantum dots (QDs), with particular reference to the manner in which the chemical structure and density of carbohydrates displayed on their surface drastically affected the efficiency of QD permeation into the nucleus. Among the carbohydrates used in our study, the high-density display of maltotriose was the most efficient for the nuclear import of QDs. As it is not reliant on cytosolic factors for nuclear import, we concluded that the sugar-displaying QDs can be transported into the nucleus via passive diffusion rather than through a specific receptor-mediated pathway.
Specific carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions on the cell surfaces are now widely believed to participate in various biological events, such as cell-cell adhesions and signal transductions. The author has used an intramolecular approach to investigate the carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions by using small glycoclusters in which their conformational transitions are energetically coupled with intramolecular carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions. For example, the intramolecular carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction was monitored on the basis of the helix-coil transition of the glycosylated α-helical peptide. The rotational transition along molecular axes was also utilized in the μ-oxo-bisporphyrinatoiron-based and ferrocene-based systems to monitor the carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions. In all these systems, it was proven that specific cations induce specific interactions between the oligosaccharides.