Trends in Glycoscience and Glycotechnology
Online ISSN : 1883-2113
Print ISSN : 0915-7352
Volume 14 , Issue 80
Showing 1-4 articles out of 4 articles from the selected issue
  • Tomoyuki Nishimoto
    2002 Volume 14 Issue 80 Pages 321-330
    Published: November 02, 2002
    Released: January 05, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    There are many oligosaccharides synthesized enzymatically. However, these are very few kinds of nonreducing glucooligosaccharides synthesized from starch. Examples of such oligosaccharides are trehalose and cyclodextrins. Cyclotetrasaccharide (CTS; cyclo {→6)-α-D-glcp-(1→3)-α-D-glcp-(1→6)-α-D-glcp-(1→3)-α-D-glcp-(1→}), is also one of the nonreducing glucooligosaccharides. A synthesizing system of this cyclic oligosaccharide from starch was recently found in Bacillus globisporus C11. CTS-synthesizing mechanism controlled by two enzymes and the sequence of the genes encording them were reported in succession. These studies indicate that there is a good possibility of industrial production of CTS and a gene cluster related to the synthesis and transport of CTS is present in microorganisms. This review summarizes the current study of CTS by focusing on the CTS-synthesizing system from starch.
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  • Masayuki Ishihara
    2002 Volume 14 Issue 80 Pages 331-341
    Published: November 02, 2002
    Released: January 05, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Chitin and chitosan have been shown to accelerate wound healing, to have antibacterial properties, and to stimulate macrophages. We have prepared photocrosslinkable chitosan molecules which are easy to apply onto various kinds of wounds and produce insoluble hydrogel by a short ultraviolet (UV-) light irradiation. The chitosan hydrogel has been found to cover and protect various wounds and to accelerate healing. In addition, it effectively seals air leakage from incision on the lung and bleeding from the artery as a biological adhesive. Thus, the photocrosslinkable chitosan hydrogel may be a promising new dressing for wound occlusion and a tissue adhesive, especially suitable in situations requiring an urgent hemostasis in disaster medicine.
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  • Ryo Takano
    2002 Volume 14 Issue 80 Pages 343-351
    Published: November 02, 2002
    Released: January 05, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Detailed structural information of sulfated polysaccharides such as glycosaminoglycans and algal polysaccharides is required for the investigation of their biological and physical properties. Desulfation is a basic tool for the structural investigation of the polysaccharides themselves, as well as an essential method for molecular bases of their functions. This review describes progress in the methods for desulfation of sulfated carbohydrates.
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  • Hiroshi Urakawa, Mitsuru Mimura, Kanji Kajiwara
    2002 Volume 14 Issue 80 Pages 355-376
    Published: November 02, 2002
    Released: January 05, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We demonstrate the diversity and versatility of plant seed xyloglucan by taking the examples of xyloglucans from the seed of Tamarindus indica and of Detarium senegalense Gmelin. The primary structure of plant seed xyloglucans is similar being composed of cellulose backbone. The flour obtained from Tamarindus indica and Detarium senegalense Gmelin seeds is consumed daily as a food additive but it is reported that those two xyloglucans reveal different physiological effects on the human body. Three types of monomers are available for xyloglucan. Thus the physiological function may be due to the higher order structure, which is specified by the sequence of different monomer types.
    Light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering is the major tool for investigating the structure of xyloglucan in solution. We will introduce briefly the methodology for the structural analysis of xyloglucan in solution. The analyzed results of light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering indicate that Detarium senegalense Gmelin has a branched structure whereas Tamarindus indica consists essentially of linear polysaccharide.
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