Trends in Glycoscience and Glycotechnology
Online ISSN : 1883-2113
Print ISSN : 0915-7352
Volume 27 , Issue 157
Showing 1-6 articles out of 6 articles from the selected issue
GLYCODEBUT
  • Yuya Asahina
    2015 Volume 27 Issue 157 Pages E15-E19
    Published: September 25, 2015
    Released: September 25, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The chemoenzymatic method using glycosynthase is one of potent strategies for the synthesis of glycoproteins having a homogeneous glycan. In this method, the efficient preparation of the N-acetylglucosaminylated protein is of great importance. Thus, for producing this compound with a high efficiency, we developed the sequential thioester method and the fast preparation method of the N-acetylglucosaminyl peptide. These methods realized the efficient preparation of glycoproteins having GlcNAc. Finally, homogeneous glycoproteins, the Tim-3 Ig domain and emmprin were successfully synthesized by the transglycosylation using glycosynthase.
    Download PDF (1190K)
MINIREVIEW
  • Takashi Watanabe, Yohei Ishibashi, Makoto Ito
    2015 Volume 27 Issue 157 Pages E21-E31
    Published: September 25, 2015
    Released: September 25, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans causes cryptococcosis, an opportunistic infectious disease resulting in 600,000 deaths per year. The two major glycolipids in C. neoformans are glucosylceramide (GlcCer) with a fungus-specific ceramide (methyl d18 : 2/h18 : 0) and ergosteryl β-glucoside (EG); however, the catabolic pathway of these glycolipids has not yet been uncovered. We found two homologues of endoglycoceramidase (EGCase, EC 3.2.1.123) in C. neoformans, designated Endoglycoceramidase-related Protein 1 and 2 (EGCrP1 and EGCrP2). EGCase hydrolyzes the O-glycosidic linkage between oligosaccharides and ceramides in various glycosphingolipids. However, EGCrP1 and EGCrP2 show completely different specificities; that is, EGCrP1 is a neutral glucocerebrosidase specific to GlcCer, whereas EGCrP2 is an acid β-glucosidase capable of hydrolyzing not only GlcCer but also various β-glucosides, including pNP β-glucoside and EG. Using each disruption mutant of egcrp1 and egcrp2, we elucidated that EGCrP1 plays an integral role in quality control of the fungus-specific GlcCer by eliminating immature GlcCer, which are byproducts of the GlcCer synthesis pathway, whereas EGCrP2 is involved in the catabolism of EG in the vacuoles of C. neoformans. The analysis of egcrp1-disrupted mutants also revealed that the quality control of fungus-specific GlcCer is strongly linked to the formation of the polysaccharide capsule, an important virulence factor. On the other hand, the disruption of EG catabolism resulted in growth arrest, dysfunction in cell budding, and abnormal vacuole morphology. These results indicate that catabolism of two different glycolipids plays different physiological roles in C. neoformans and strongly suggest EGCrP1 and EGCrP2 as targets for anti-cryptococcal drugs with a new mechanism of action.
    Download PDF (5749K)
GLYCOTOPIC
GLYCODEBUT (Jpn. Ed.)
  • Yuya Asahina
    2015 Volume 27 Issue 157 Pages J15-J20
    Published: September 25, 2015
    Released: September 25, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The chemoenzymatic method using glycosynthase is one of potent strategies for the synthesis of glycoproteins having a homogeneous glycan. In this method, the efficient preparation of the N-acetylglucosaminylated protein is of great importance. Thus, for producing this compound with a high efficiency, we developed the sequential thioester method and the fast preparation method of the N-acetylglucosaminyl peptide. These methods realized the efficient preparation of glycoproteins having GlcNAc. Finally, homogeneous glycoproteins, the Tim-3 Ig domain and emmprin were successfully synthesized by the transglycosylation using glycosynthase.
    Download PDF (1322K)
MINIREVIEW (Jpn. Ed.)
  • Takashi Watanabe, Yohei Ishibashi, Makoto Ito
    2015 Volume 27 Issue 157 Pages J21-J31
    Published: September 25, 2015
    Released: September 25, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans causes cryptococcosis, an opportunistic infectious disease resulting in 600,000 deaths per year. The two major glycolipids in C. neoformans are glucosylceramide (GlcCer) with a fungus-specific ceramide (methyl d18 : 2/h18 : 0) and ergosteryl β-glucoside (EG); however, the catabolic pathway of these glycolipids has not yet been uncovered. We found two homologues of endoglycoceramidase (EGCase, EC 3.2.1.123) in C. neoformans, designated Endoglycoceramidase-related Protein 1 and 2 (EGCrP1 and EGCrP2). EGCase hydrolyzes the O-glycosidic linkage between oligosaccharides and ceramides in various glycosphingolipids. However, EGCrP1 and EGCrP2 show completely different specificities; that is, EGCrP1 is a neutral glucocerebrosidase specific to GlcCer, whereas EGCrP2 is an acid β-glucosidase capable of hydrolyzing not only GlcCer but also various β-glucosides, including pNP β-glucoside and EG. Using each disruption mutant of egcrp1 and egcrp2, we elucidated that EGCrP1 plays an integral role in quality control of the fungus-specific GlcCer by eliminating immature GlcCer, which are byproducts of the GlcCer synthesis pathway, whereas EGCrP2 is involved in the catabolism of EG in the vacuoles of C. neoformans. The analysis of egcrp1-disrupted mutants also revealed that the quality control of fungus-specific GlcCer is strongly linked to the formation of the polysaccharide capsule, an important virulence factor. On the other hand, the disruption of EG catabolism resulted in growth arrest, dysfunction in cell budding, and abnormal vacuole morphology. These results indicate that catabolism of two different glycolipids plays different physiological roles in C. neoformans and strongly suggest EGCrP1 and EGCrP2 as targets for anti-cryptococcal drugs with a new mechanism of action.
    Download PDF (5992K)
GLYCOTOPIC (Jpn. Ed.)
feedback
Top