The preparation of materials from polysaccharides is important from both a functional and industrial aspect. In this review, after a brief explanation on the chemical structures and properties of the representative polysaccharides used in material chemistry, we described the preparation of structural materials, such as porous scaffolds, films, and fibers, from polysaccharides for biomedical applications, with a focus on polysaccharide species and fabrication methods and also discussed our own findings.
Intracellular delivery using cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) has received considerable interest due to its ease of administration, as well as potential applicability therapeutically. Various bioactive molecules—including peptides/proteins, nucleic acids, liposomes, and nano-particles—that have been conjugated chemically to or have formed complexes with CPPs have been delivered into cells efficiently by the simple addition of these conjugates or complexes to culture media. Although various CPPs with different physicochemical properties have been reported, those rich in arginine are employed most frequently. Membrane-associated proteoglycans such as heparan sulfate proteoglycans play important roles in stimulating the cellular uptake of arginine-rich CPPs and their attached cargoes by concentrating them on cell surfaces via electrostatic interactions between the positive charge on the arginine and negative charges on the glycosaminoglycans. The interaction between arginine-rich CPPs and membrane-associate proteoglycans also induces fluid-phase endocytosis, named macropinocytosis, which facilitates the cellular uptake of arginine-rich CPPs and their cargoes.
Recently, the significant role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in tumor progression has garnered great attention in biomedical research. Fibronectin (FN), an essential ECM glycoprotein in development and wound healing, is deregulated in various diseases, such as cancer and fibrosis. Alterations in FN fibril organization can affect ECM organization, cancer cell migration and growth, and tumor angiogenesis. This minireview discusses the recent advances in studies of the molecular mechanisms underlying FN matrix assembly, provides an overview of the role of FN matrix assembly in cancer progression, and highlights the potential for FN matrices as therapeutic targets or tools for cancer treatment.
Sugar nucleotides are important intermediates in carbohydrate metabolism and function as activated glycosyl donors for the biosynthesis of oligosaccharides. This review focuses on recent progress in the chemical synthesis of sugar nucleoside diphosphates.
This review surveys recent advances in the material functionalization of structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin. This functionalization includes improving their mechanical properties, subtly regulating optical performance, developing cytocompatibility, etc., and has been accomplished through nano-architectonic methods such as the orientation control of segments and molecules and the intimate nanoscopic mixing of different components, each on a scale larger than a single molecule. It is hoped that this fundamental data will lead to further functionalization of biomass-based materials, thereby expanding their bioscientific perspective.