In this study, we have surveyed the distribution and spatial spread of Jizo-bon (ceremony of Jizo =stone statue of a Buddhist god) found within the limits of public housing located in eastern suburb of Kyoto city, and analyzed them in order to consider the nature of common space used for ceremonies held by the residents. Jizo-bon is a ritual ceremony common mainly in the Kansai area, held in 24th August, the ceremonial day of Jizo-bosatsu (A god of Buddhism). While Jizo-bon is composed by several events, the most important section is the Buddhist chant and lecture provided by the priest. In the ceremony, prayers will gather around the Jizo to pray with the priest. Our study focuses on the behavior of this ceremonial area.
Jizo-bon inside public housing is still largely unexplored; a field research was conducted in order to clarify the present condition of every Jizo-bon held inside public housing in the eastern suburb of Kyoto city. The scope of the survey was aimed at public housings located in Yamashina-ward and eastern Fushimi-ward. The history of this area is relatively short compared to central Kyoto. Urban development experienced rapid growth in the post WW2 era and during the high economic growth period. Major housing development led the growth of population of this suburban area. In our last study, we have pointed out these suburban areas are the specific areas in Kyoto where large amount of Danchi-nai-Jizo (Jizo inside public housing) were found. Research of Jizo-bon in this area will highlight the traditional manners within the modern habitation environment.
Jizo-bon was identified in 17 public housings, out of 19 (with Danchi-nai-Jizo). 11 were found in Yamashina ward and 6 were in the eastern Fushimi area. There was a clear correlation between the housings with Danchi-nai-Jizo and the ceremony. We confirmed that these Danchi-nai-Jizo were mainly placed for the Jizo-bon festival. We found three pattern types identified based on its position, “Open-air”, “Pilotis”, and “Halls”. These types were derived through analysis of chronological configuration. In massive housings built by the early 70s, small sized “Open-air” Jizo-bon, the ceremony held outdoors at the Jizo location, were typical. During this era, social interest of Jizo-bon grew throughout the city, and the performance of ceremonies become bigger and grander in scale. Jizo-bon in “Halls”, the ceremony performed indoors of the hall in public housing, were found during this era. Public housing built in each era tend to carry and maintain their own Jizo-bon until today. This explains the various forms of Jizo-bon we see.
Spatial analysis of the ceremonial areas within common space brought out two specific behaviors; “diverse” and “traverse”. “Diverse” explains the original purpose and function of common space diverted into ceremonial use. “Traverse” explains the crossover use of various common space, while temporarily neutralizing the borders within. The loose articulation among the common space sustains the use of various Jizo-bon in public housings.
Tents, mats and lanterns are usually placed around the Jizo during the ceremony. These temporary elements make the everyday common space into the ritual space. This shows that Jizo-bon in public housing is an event that the common space overlaps the extraordinary.
In conclusion, it is safe to say that loose articulation found among common space in public housings, carries and sustains the various ways of common use by the community, such as the Jizo-bon.
In this paper, we proposed a pedestrian behavior model and estimated it using precise walking trajectory data measured by laser scanner sensors, and demonstrated that the proposed model is effective for evaluating pedestrian spaces and can be used for a planning support tool.
First, a route selection model for describing pedestrians' macro walking behavior was described by routes, which minimize the walking distance to the destinations. In addition, by incorporating the psychological stress received from other pedestrians and obstacles such as walls and pillars during walking, we extended the walking model which was proposed in the previous research. By combining these two models, a pedestrian behavior model was constructed.
Next, we conducted a behavior monitoring survey of pedestrians using laser sensor scanners in a reception area for outpatients in a hospital, and measured the walking trajectory of pedestrians with high accuracy. Furthermore, the unknown parameters of the pedestrian behavior model were estimated using the precise walking trajectory data, and the walking characteristics which vary according to pedestrians' attributes (sex, patient/staff, assistant tool) were discussed. Furthermore, we validated the description accuracy of the pedestrian behavior model using the walking trajectory data.
Next, we proposed a method to evaluate the comfort and efficiency of pedestrian space from the view point of psychological stress of pedestrians. In general, it is difficult to estimate the degree of psychological stress of pedestrians by using only the frequency of pedestrian traffics of pedestrians. However, by using the pedestrian behavior model and by comparing the distribution of psychological stress values at different time periods and places, we demonstrated that it is possible to grasp the distribution of comfort and efficiency in pedestrian spaces.
Finally, another behavior monitoring survey of pedestrians was conducted in the same hospital after renovation, and we compared the measured trajectory data with the execution result of walk simulation based on the pedestrian behavior model. Specifically, by comparing the spatial distribution of pedestrian traffic frequency and psychological stress, we demonstrated that the pedestrian behavior simulation is effective and available for a building planning support tool.
In this paper, we demonstrated the characteristics of pedestrian behavior which vary according to the attributes of pedestrians. However, it is not yet confident whether the proposed model is applicable to other type of facilities where the characteristics of pedestrians and their walking behaviors are totally different from that in hospitals. Construction of a pedestrian behavior model in various facility types is our future work. Furthermore, the descriptive power of the pedestrian behavior model is still insufficient for grouped pedestrians walking together with multiple people. We would like to discuss it and modify the model in our future work.
During the Great East Japan Earthquake, the proportion of public cultural facilities designated as evacuation centers in the affected prefecture was 30% of the total before the disaster. However, in fact, some facility managers made voluntary judgments, and 40% of the facilities became evacuation centers. Even if facilities are not designated as evacuation centers, they may be diverted to being evacuation centers, if needed. However, the perspective of facility managers on evacuation center management is unknown.
In this study, the causal relation between the perspective of the facility manager and acceptance of evacuation center conversion was verified using a questionnaire survey of public cultural facilities nationwide. In addition, a structural model of the facility manager’s perspective on evacuation center management was clarified through structural equation modeling.
As results, the following five points were clarified.
1) A disaster self-measures tendency had a positive, indirect effect via shelter management preparation tendency on acceptance of evacuation center conversion.
2) A disaster self-measure tendency had a positive, indirect effect through social contribution tendency on acceptance of evacuation center conversion.
3) Acceptance of evacuation center conversion had a positive, direct effect on a disaster self-measures tendency.
4)The path connecting a disaster self-measures tendency, shelter management preparation tendency, social contribution tendency and acceptance of evacuation center conversion had a causal relationship that spirals up while continuing to circulate in a unidirectional flow.
5)These causal relationships were particularly well adapted to the conscious structure model of the managers of facilities less than 40 years old and facilities without experience of diverting shelters.
Based on the above findings, it is important for evacuation management to establish a system of operation centered on local communities, yet local communities do not understand special functions in public cultural facilities. Therefore, managers and staff who are familiar with special functions in public cultural facilities should support evacuation centers, since public cultural facilities have special rooms. For local communities to manage such an operation, reinforcement, repair, inspection, and maintenance of buildings are carried out in addition to disaster prevention training. The safety of one’s own facilities should be confirmed by identifying the damage location of the facility in advance. Next, to proceed with preparations for evacuation management, evacuation center management manuals should be prepared by each facility, based on the spatial composition of each facility. Furthermore, by clearly indicating to citizens that the building functions as a shelter at the time of a disaster, the social contribution tendency should be effectively managed by coordinators to increase acceptance of evacuation shelters.
The purpose of this study is to reveal the “architectural conditions”, such as structure, building age, historical importance, and changes on size and uses of a building, which will lead architects to their design decision. In this paper, we set our original indicator, “quantitative similarity of the old and the new” and analyze trends and characteristics of retrofit architecture in these several decades. This study will give us important clues on systematizing and generalizing the design method of retrofit architecture.
The subjects of this study are 100 cases of retrofitted modern architecture, which were printed in the magazine, Shinkenchiku, from 1974 to 2017. First, for analysis, we set 7 items as “architectural conditions” and a 19 items as “design decisions”, and both include the item of “the distance between the old and the new”, which is important to each other. Second, we prepared a matrix whose rows are the 100 cases and whose columns are the “architectural conditions” and the “design decisions” and calculated cross-tabulation of all items. In addition, we did Chi-Square test to check its significance.
As for the relationship between the “architectural conditions” and the “design decisions”, especially in a category of “shape”, historical importance is relevant to flatness of façade, height of façade, alignment of façade and shape of window and change on uses is relevant to allocation of façade material and shape of window, ratio of the old and the new has relation to flatness of façade, maximum height, allocation of façade material, key element of façade, shape of window. Items of the “design decisions” in a category of “finishing” has few relation to any items of the “architectural condition”.
Especially as for the relationship between the “architectural conditions” and the “distance between the old and the new”, it has relation to ratio of building area of the old and the new and ratio of total floor area of the old and the new. It has also relation to flatness of façade, shape of roof, maximum height, height of façade, allocation of façade material, key element of façade, alignment of façade and shape of window, which are all in the category of “shape” in the “design decisions”. We can also see relation the “distance between the old and the new” and material of façade and color of joint elements.
Thus we analyzed trends and characteristics of retrofit architecture using an indicator of “quantitative similarity of the old and the new”, and clarified what kind of “architectural conditions” have affected “design decisions”. Through this analysis we find that architects tend to put more importance on “shape” than “finishing” when they think about the combination of the existing part and the new part, and that the “distance between the old and the new” is influenced by the “architectural conditions” and also have affected “design decisions”.
This study is a reproducible proof type study of the hypothesis that "a problem discovery type event" is effective for a breakthrough of the community development. It was said that community improvement did not advance to before in the Kawaue district in City of Nakatsugawa that became a model targeted for the proof.
We analyzed an investigation for the the workshop type meetings by the Kawaue Association for Promotion of Regional Development(Machikyo), were able to demonstrate that "a problem discovery type event" functioned effectively.
The "problem discovery type event" is K marche event held at Kawaue Maple Festival in November, 2017.
At Yumori forest park that was the nucleus of the district, K marche made various plans such as direct market of farm products produced in an area, local people and friend craft shop, the open-air fire experience utilized the local product of the tree. As a result, K marche produced unexpected result and brought a response and a reaction in the area.
The event by the conventional Maple Festival entrusted an outside supplier, but in K marche event, local people became a plan, the leading role, and the person of not only the tourist but also the village participated, and a thing to come, and to be able to enjoy became. The movement that it was said to utilize the fields which they did not utilize enough more so far was born by exhibiting it, and farm products cultivated in the local fields having been sold. In consequence K marche event produced possibility to change structure of improvement of the farmland which went to ruin and the local occupation.
In addition, the local woman and youth who did not play an active part in the community improvement, the activation of the talented people such as immigrants, the possibility of the interchange activation with other areas were born by enforcement of K marche so far.
Members of Machi-kyo themself understood lack of executive ability that was the biggest problems of Machi-kyo and came to think about the need to make new system. The system are where the young people who carried K marche can move freely and Machi-kyo menbers support them up overall.
Furthermore, they were able to absorb the wisdom of the advanced example of other areas live information while an area found out a policy of the problem solution.
South Pacific islands are prone to cyclones due to their geographic conditions, such as isolation, distance and narrowness (Kobayashi, 1994). Most people are small-scale farmers and they do not have a constant income. When a natural disaster hit their villages, they cannot afford to purchase construction material and then reconstruct makeshift houses. Therefore, rural houses are more vulnerable to natural disasters (Magee, 2016). In February 2016, Fiji was hit by Tropical Cyclone Winston which was the biggest cyclone ever to occur in the region in the last 20 years. The government of Fiji estimated that approximately 540,000 (60% of the population) people were affected as well as almost 30,000 houses were destroyed. Reconstruction of houses was enabled through the ‘HELP FOR HOMES (HFH)’ project, which aimed to provide electronic cards (e-cards) for purchasing construction materials and to build more resistant house from the cyclone (Build Back Better). They also made construction manual for modern houses and handed out to affected households with HFH application forms.
The objectives of this research are to observe the impact of housing in a Fijian rural village, as well as to identify how the villagers reconstructed housing with the government support after the cyclone. One of the most damaged rural areas during the cyclone included Navala Village, where many traditional Fijian houses known as ‘Bure’, and modern houses were located. This research was conducted through literature review, qualitative and quantitative questionnaire surveys to 119 households in Navala village. Key formant interview was also conducted to Ba district official and to some government ministries.
The research findings show that HFH provided e-cards to 37,100 affected households in Fiji, but the distribution was delayed because of the shortage of industrial materials. In Navala village, the village community always cooperate for the maintenance of the bures in ordinary life, and thus could quickly repair bures by themselves after the cyclone. They reconstructed 62 modern houses with the government support by September 2018. However, the quality of housing depended on village carpenters. They did not refer to the construction manual provided by the government and there is no building code for rural modern houses with iron sheets in Fiji. Therefore, it is hard to say that HFH achieved Build Back Better. The questionnaire surveys found that 75% of the respondents selected “Bure” as a safer house compared with modern houses, as flown iron roof (debris) on modern house might injure people whereas thatched roofs was not a threat. However, they chose modern houses as reconstructed houses because they wanted shelters as soon as possible and modern houses are easy and quick to construct. In conclusion, to accomplish Build Back Better, it is better to train local carpenter in normal time and the Fijian government should establish the building code for cyclone resistant rural modern houses.
In addition, reconstruction of traditional houses should be taken into consideration in housing reconstruction in Fiji. This is to reflect the comfortable environment in tropical islands and to enhance traditional building knowledge in the island. The scheme of housing reconstruction after disasters should include conventional houses with natural resources besides modern houses.
Alfama district is Lisbon’s oldest district on the mortar-shaped slope. The place escaped catastrophic damage from the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, and had been invaded repeatedly by different ethnicities. There is a unique landscape, a lot of stairs, narrow alleys and high-density housing, which characterize such a historic district is located in the center of Lisbon. However, in both Portugal and Japan, few studies have focused on the district, and little is known about the street structure. Then, we decided to research the actual condition and characteristics of its street structure.
As method, first, we define “stairs” and “retaining walls” as a common component on the slope. Then, we consider the “small square” as a unique component of the district. From the above three viewpoints, we study the street structure.
The purpose of this study is to clarify (1) the characteristic of shape of stairs and retaining walls by actual measurement survey, and (2) the network structure of the street on the mortar-shaped slope.
Results are summarized in the following statements.
1）a. Except small stairs, the shape of stairs is categorized as "large width stairs" and "narrow width and long stairs"
1）b. There are three shapes of retaining walls: small one that flatten the small square or pertain to stairs, long and low one that connect the road or crossroads, and the huge ruins that is named “Cerca Moura”.
2）The street of Alfama district has been replaced by one-way road with traffic regulation system, passage of invading vehicles and public elevator. Additionally, the small square with stairs or retaining walls has an important role as a branch point of the semilattice network.
The Great East Japan Earthquake includes the nuclear power plant accident in Fukushima. The disaster still goes on. We have to record what happens and consider what we should prepare for the next disaster.
The nuclear power plant disaster requires zoning for evacuation. It can be classified into three types.
1. Zoning for Emergency Evacuation -2011.3. 11 – 4.21: it has to be decided under uncertain situations. The national government adopted the physical numerical value as a zoning line. On the other hand, local municipalities often used their own territory as a border. The current evacuation plan, which has been institutionalized after the Fukushima F-1, cannot realize its agenda at the next disaster.
2. Zoning for Temporary Sheltering 2011.4. 22 – 9.30: it is strongly influenced by the contamination level and will influence the future one. If the locals require for the strict decontamination, it will face difficulties in terms of construction work and storage place for contaminated soil. The municipality and community may discuss this conflicted matter from ordinary times.
3. Zoning for Protracted Refuge -2011.10.1-: the protracted term is very various including the negative repatriation area. However, it is also timed zoning in a similar way of other restraint order zones. The national government tries to construct a central hub for the negative repatriation area. We have to figure out a new methodology for this zone considering the relationship between non-returners and their home town. As the conditions of lifting the evacuation, the national government offered to prepare for the living environment. There is a difference between the consciousness of national government, and the reality of the damaged area and people.
After the experience of Fukushima F-1 Disaster, we should understand that the zoning system cannot guarantee the evacuation from the nuclear power plant accident nor settle the turmoil by the contamination.
1. Background and Purpose
Kagai collectively inherit many aspect of traditional Japanese culture, from architecture to music and cuisine both tangible and intangible. In the past, Kagai were ubiquitous throughout Japan. Today, the number of active Kagai is about 50. Furumachi Kagai is a significant area, because the historic district, which is different from those in Kyoto or Kanazawa, is remained. Most traditional Kagai in comparatively large cities were lost by air raids in the Second World War. First, this study aims to clarify distribution of historic buildings, Kagai buildings, former Kagai buildings, and multi-tenant buildings in Furumachi Kagai. Second, this study aims to clarify design character and detailing regarding historic buildings in terms of difference between Kagai building and non Kagai building. This is to prepare a basic date for expected district designation and establishment of a design guideline.
2. Overview of Furumachi Kagai and research methods
Niigata was originally established as a port-town and rebuilt on the present site in 1655. Furumachi is located in the center of Niigata. Furumachi Kagai was formed on Furumachi-dori, 8 bancho and 9 bancho in Middle Meiji period. Furumachi Kagai contains 13 ryoriya and 27 geisha in 2018. The study conducts fieldwork, documentary records research, and interviews with various personnel including the landlady of ryoriya and geisha in Furumachi Kagai.
1) 84 / 244 (34%) buildings are estimated to be historic buildings in the central part of Furumachi Kagai. Mostly remaining area is the area along 9 bancho side of Higashi-shinmichi (Eastern new street). On the other hand, this area is fewer than any other area in problem on streetscape. In addition, it is relatively easy to build consensus among residents on streetscape improvement in the area. From the above, the area along 9 bancho side of Higashi-shinmichi is considered to preferentially introduce zoning of the streetscape.
2) Regarding the design character of historic buildings, all non Kagai buildings are Machiya location and no front garden. On the other hand, some Kagai buildings and former Kagai buildings are quasi Machiya Type and Yashiki location with a front garden. In addition, almost half of ryoriya buildings have a front garden as entrance approach, there are different from machiya in old Niigata town in the light of appearance. On the other hand, most of okiya buildings are similar to machiya, and a few okiya buildings have a front garden on the entrance side.
3) Regarding the detailing of historic buildings, building with a detailing often used to sukiya style account for about 40 %. Most of these buildings are Kagai building or former Kagai building. Moreover, detailing often used to sukiya style is assumed to be characteristic design in all businesses related to Kagai.
Bicycles are used by many people as a convenient form of transport; however, bicycle accidents have become a serious problem. Approximately 60% of bicycle accidents are caused by violating bicycle rules, and cyclists who violate the rules are teenagers to 20-year-old riders. According to a previous survey, cyclists sometimes break rules on purpose; however, the detail factor has not been revealed. Accordingly, this study tries to clarify the relation between bicycle driving behavior from the recognition and compliance of cycling rules in teenagers and 20-year-old cyclists.
The surveys used a questionnaire and a fixed-point observation. The questionnaire targeted high school and college students and surveys the recognition and compliance of cycling rules. The fixed-point observation surveyed how bicycles were used at 11 points. Furthermore, the factors of inhibiting the compliance of cyclists were evaluated using the result of the questionnaire and fixed-point observation.
We clarified three aspects as a result. First, we obtained the following characteristic rules: “the rules which the cyclist possibly broke on purpose” and “the rules which the cyclist possible does not recognize.” The rules, which cyclist can possibly break on purpose, are “Drunken cycling” and “Parallel cycling.” The difference in recognition and real cycling (e.g., “Cycling position of sidewalk”) was also obtained. Second, cyclists were hindered in observing the rules (e.g., telephone poles hinder cyclists from observing the rules). Hence, a detail scaled factor must be improved. Cyclists were found to not save rules even in the land type of police station as well as in other points. On the contrary, a high tendency for the rule violation rate was observed, suggesting that the destination or the cycling space influences the cycling behavior more than the indirect monitoring by a police station. In other words, stronger regulations (e.g., actual crackdown) are needed to reduce the rule violation rate. As described earlier, different rules are violated by road conditions and surrounding land use, making it clear that attention and crackdown according to each situation are required. Third, removing obstructive factors does not necessarily increase the rule compliance. Based on the questionnaire results, “roadway narrowing” and “traffic volume of a car” as the principle of roadway driving are inhibiting factors along with “time reduction” for the roadway running position and “danger” for the sidewalk running position. As a result of analyzing the relation between the driving position and the width of the roadway and sidewalk, widening the roadway tends to increase the violation rate. Moreover, compliance rate tends to increase with wider sidewalks.
This paper treats how carpentry techniques were diffused and accumulated in the history of architectural production. The author argued in his previous paper that full use of a regional network of people, goods, and information enabled a Toryo master carpenter to organize and manage a construction project. He also proposed that the transition of Toryo master carpenters could be organized into three periods of establishment, growth, and expansion. This paper thus aimed to reinforce such way of understanding Toryo master carpenters and to pursue historical factors of the transition of the Toryo master carpenters.
Specifically, Washimiya village and Koga-jokamachi castle town were focused on to investigate the carpenters in each area. Consequently, it was understood that the transition of carpentering happened as a process of equalization of architectural production in the village and the town. In other words, such change in situation allowed more carpenters to work on an equal basis. This change also forced the carpenters to get necessary elements by themselves to gain and achieve a project. It was conceivable that such a situation made carpentry techniques to be diffused and accumulated in specific areas and families.
The followings were found about the venues of the green tea ceremonies after over viewing the 51 target materials on illustration of the green tea ceremony.
Temples, home of Shinto priests, personal houses and restaurants were often chosen as venues. Buildings with enjoyable views from upper floor such as Funauro and Nakamuraro were preferred. Picturesque scenery from each areas, especially waterfronts were popular places to hold the ceremonies. For example, Seiwan’s Amijima in Osaka, neighborhoods of Maruyama and Nanzenji-temple in Higashiyama, Kyoto, and along the streams of Sumidagawa-river and Ueno’s Shinobazuike-pond (Lake Kosai) in Tokyo.
Various venues were used in order to produce an elaborate ceremonies. For example, by hosting at a tile flooring and grass-roof house, or arranging on the deck of the boat.
This research clarified the following three points on the venue design process for EXPO’70 and five types of Tange’s collaborative design projects.
1. The author ordered the design process of the symbol zone chronologically based on the minutes of official meetings and the construction process chart for EXPO’70.
2. The author visualized the design process of the symbol zone based on the drawings and model photos of the venue plan for EXPO’70.
3. The author classified the collaborative design projects in which Tange participated into five types, and considered the relationship between the design process for the symbol zone and these five types of projects. The author clarified the following three points about the collaborative design for EXPO’70:
3-1. Tange and Uzo Nishiyama were both famous professor-architects, and it was very difficult to put together their different ideas.
3-2. Tange managed the design office for main facilities of EXPO ‘70 as producer. Using his experiences at the laboratory, Tange encouraged the staff members to freely exchange their views.
3-3. Tange and Taro Okamoto previously worked together for the design for the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office in 1958. Okamoto’s elevated ideals to integrate art and architecture later realized in their proposal for the “Taiyo no tou (Tower of the Sun)” at the Omatsuri Hiroba (Festival Plaza) in 1970.
Nobuko Nakahara is one of the prominent architects who led the postwar housing design and established Hayashi-Yamada-Nakahara, Architects and Preservation in 1958. In this paper, it is aimed at comprehensively clarifying the design process and the background of “Chogakuin temple (1962)” with the HP shell roof which was completed just 4 years after her office was founded. She entered the Ikebe Laboratory of the Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo as a technical research student, and in the midst of the Controversies on Japanese tradition that involved Kiyoshi Ikebe, she was in charge of designing works “Number 20” and “Number 28.” In addition, the Ikebe Laboratory was actively working on a shell structure which was a new technology at that time. And, Nakahara closely related herself to “Numazu City Public Hall(1953)” designed by Ikebe Laboratory, and became close to Hoji Nukushina who was indirectly involved in structural design and Takumi Orimoto, a structural designer of “Number 38 (1958)”. Buildings adopting HP shell in Japan were built from around 1952. The number of shingles of the HP shell accounts for mostly one which constitutes one unit by one sheet and one which constitutes one unit by four sheets. As a new construction of reinforced concrete construction, “Chogakuin temple” is a work that Nobuko Nakahara first worked on after the establishment of the office and was published in a magazine titled “Integration of HP Shell and Tradition.” Chief priest and Parishioners wanted a warm and soft atmosphere. Therefore, Nakahara responded to the demand by adopting "Disconnected HP shell, " for example, by curving the edge beam of the shell. At the time, there were no roofs of exactly the same shape as this. The roof of the main “Chogakuin temple” is a combination of 4 HP shells, and its roof is supported by 4 pillars. The beams and pillars have an equilateral triangular cross-sectional shape, and they handle rainwater with grooves in them. Works that used “Disconnected HP shell” in times when structural expressionism is popular, “Chogakuin temple” is the only example, other than the saddle shell.
The reason why Nobuko Nakahara was able to complete the design of “Chogakuin temple” to integrate HP shell and the Japanese tradition in 1962, the following could be noted.
1. She learned about modern architectural thinking from Kiyoshi Ikebe so she could understand Japanese traditional design and structural expressionism.
2. She experienced the Controversies on Japanese tradition in Ikebe Laboratory and others, and established a basic way of thinking against this problem. She accepted positively the desire of Chief priest and Parishioners while designing this temple.
3. In the Ikebe Laboratory which was motivated to apply the new technology, she learned about HP shell, gained network with structural designer Hoji Nukushina and others, and completed the “Chogakuin temple” design under the support of them.
The way of thinking of Kiyoshi Ikebe about tradition simply did not adopt the Japanese element as it was. On the Contrary, it was going beyond tradition using new materials, construction methods, and techniques. As a disciple of Kiyoshi Ikebe, Nobuko Nakahara followed his idea with the cooperation of others and applied them to “Chogakuin temple” in its realization.
In 1960s, Aldo Rossi (1931-1997) designed the three monuments for the partisan in World War II. The two were had not been realized, Monument to the Resistance in Cuneo (1962) and the Fountain in Milan (1962), and the other was realized, Segrate Fountain (1965-1967).
This paper analyzed the staircases of the three monuments designed by Rossi and revealed the system of the dimensions through the measurement of his early works. The author measured the realized Segrate Fountain, and specified relationship with the plans. After that, the proportion of the other monuments was analyzed in term of the staircases.
In Section 1, after measuring Segrate Fountain, the author dealt on the comparison of the stairs between Segrate Fountain and Feltre Fountain (1965), which was treated as preliminary version of Segrate Fountain. Through making 3D models, the change proportion of Segrate Fountain was specified. Segrate Fountain had an extruded prism with equilateral triangle of 2m and the stairs had the tread and rise of 20 cm and people sit on it. On the other hand Feltre Fountain had different proportion of triangle fountain from Segrate and its stairs on the back with the 30cm tread and 18cm rise. In the change from Feltre to Segrate, Rossi tried to use regular squares in the proportion of stairs.
In Section 2, it showed the measurement of staircase of Monument in Cuneo, shaped as a cube of 12m, with the slit on the top associated with the Realized staircase of Monument of Sandro Pertini in Milan (1988). Through the measurement of the first published plans in Casabella Continuità, counting its treads and rises of the staircase, it specified that the roof plan and section of the monument were not corresponded. Assuming height of the cave of stairs in which human could climb, it found that the tread and rise had the same size and were measured in range from 24cm to 25cm.
In Section 3, it dealt on the Fountain in Milan. Designed in the same year of Monument in Cuneo, shown as the cube of 10m surrounded with water veil, it was composed in a cantilevered fountain where water would flow along the walls. The C-shaped ledge on center pillar measured 50cm height and the same-sized depth. Stepping 6 stairs of the rise of 13.3cm and the tread of 30cm, people could walk around and seat the ledge as a pillar bench in that scale. The proportion was derived from silver ratio (1:√2) and ratio of regular square(1:1) and half of regular triangle(1:√3)
As the result, it was shown that Rossi integrated not only geometry but also human scale in his architectural monument. While he rendered the monuments in geometrical rigidity, the staircases enabled the monument for living humans to be stepped and climbed. In his citation of Plato in A Scientific Autobiography, the soul finally entered into the light as if they had some volume like body. The monument for the Italian partisan also the place where souls gathered, and it was supposed that staircase had played a role to connect the living and the dead in same place.