Objective: Intraoperative diagnosis of lymph node (LN) metastasis is critical in lung cancer patients. The one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay is a novel technique using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method of gene amplification. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the OSNA assay provides sufficient diagnosis of LN metastasis in lung cancer patients. Methods: A total of 40 LN stations were dissected from the 20 patients, who had curative lobectomy for lung cancer. The cut halves of LNs were used for pathological diagnosis, and other halves were for the OSNA assay. The OSNA assay used cytokeratin (CK) 19 mRNA as a marker. The CK19 mRNA copy number was detected using RD-100i (Sysmex Corp., Hyogo, Japan). One formalin-fixed section with the largest cutting surface of the other halves of LNs was used for pathological examination. When discordance was observed between OSNA assay and usual pathological examination, an additional examination using 1-mm interval sections was performed. Results: In the forty LN stations, three stations were diagnosed as LN metastasis positive pathologically. In these three, the OSNA assays showed extremely high numbers of CK19 mRNA copies. When the cutoff value was set to 250 copies/μl, 4 stations with relatively low copy numbers were found to be discordant. Of the 4 discordant cases, one was shown to be micro-metastasis positive in the additional pathological assessment. The sensitivity of the OSNA assay was 100.0%, and its specificity was 91.7%. Conclusions: This method could be applied to intraoperative assessment LNs metastasis.
Purpose: This retrospective study evaluated whether the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on 18F-deoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) could be used to predict the prognosis of patients with pathological stage I adenocarcinoma. Methods: We analyzed 138 consecutive patients with pathological stage IA or IB lung adenocarcinoma except pure bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) who underwent preoperative FDG-PET imaging and curative resection from January 2005 to October 2010. We analyzed associations between disease-free survival (DFS) and clinicopathological factors. Results: The 5-year DFS rate was 77.7%. Twenty two patients (15.9%) developed recurrence after surgery. Multivariate analysis identified SUVmax and lymphovascular (ly) involvement as the independent prognostic factors for recurrence (p = 0.0255 and p = 0.0333, respectively). We divided the patients into groups according to SUVmax and ly involvement. The 5-year DFS rate was 97.0% in patients with SUVmax ≤2.5 and without ly involvement, 100% with both SUVmax ≤2.5 and ly involvement, 70.2% with SUVmax >2.5 and without ly involvement, and 53.1% with both SUVmax >2.5 and ly involvement. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that SUVmax and ly involvement could be used to predict the prognosis of patients with pathological stage I adenocarcinoma. The combination of these prognostic factors could also identify high risk groups of recurrence.
Purpose: Surgical treatment of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is usually performed in cases of prolonged air leak (PAL) or recurrence. We investigated the effect of the size of pneumothorax in surgically treated PSP cases. Methods: Between 2007 and 2008, 181 patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of PSP were prospectively recorded. The size of pneumothorax was calculated in percentages by the method defined by Kircher and Swartzel. Patients were divided into two groups, according to pneumothorax size: Group A (large pneumothorax, ≥50%), and Group B (small or moderate pneumothorax, <50%). Results: The mean size of pneumothorax was 80.5 ± 10.4% in Group A (n = 54, 29%) and 39.5 ± 6.5% in Group B (n = 127, 71%). History of smoking and smoking index were significantly higher in Group A patients (p = 0.02, p <0.001, respectively). Fifty-five patients (29.3%) required surgery because of PAL or ipsilateral recurrence. The rate of patients requiring surgical operation was significantly higher in Group A (51.9%) than in Group B (n = 25; p <0.001). Rates of PAL and recurrence were higher in Group A than in Group B (p = 0.007, p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusion: The size of pneumothorax is larger in those with a smoking history and a higher smoking index. Surgical therapy can be considered in cases with a pneumothorax size ≥50% after the first episode immediately.
Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has been enthusiastically used as a less-invasive diagnostic or therapeutic surgical procedure in recent years. VATS results in considerably less postoperative pain than traditional thoracotomy incisions. The current trend is to reduce the number of ports and minimize the length of incisions to further reduce postoperative pain, chest wall paresthesia, and length of hospitalization. Although several accounts of reduced port surgery, such as single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), have been reported, there are few descriptions of single-incision thoracoscopic surgery (SITS) using a thin puncture device for a variety of diseases. Herein, we describe a minimally invasive SITS technique using a thin puncture device.
Purpose: Catamenial pneumothorax (CP) is classified as thoracic endometriosis syndrome. There are few reports of CP, and the clinical manifestations of this disease are unclear. The aim of the present study is to clarify the features of CP. Methods: The clinical and pathological files of the 92 female patients pathologically diagnosed with thoracic endometriosis are included in this study. The clinical data and pathological findings of the recurrent and non-recurrent groups are compared. Results: Thirty-six patients (39.1%) experienced recurrence, 37 (40.2%) patients did not, and 19 (20.4) patients could not be evaluated. The ratio of the endometrial gland in the diaphragm is significantly higher in the recurrent cases in comparison to non-recurrent cases (66.7% vs. 37.8%, P = 0.01). Conclusions: The recurrence rate of CP is high. Further study of the optimal management strategies is needed, especially for CP cases with the endometrial gland in the diaphragm.
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome (4 years) of high-intensity-focused-ultrasound (HIFU) cardiac ablation, the significance of postablation antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) and predictors of successful sinus rhythm (SR) restoration. Methods: 103 patients were prospectively enrolled in a single-center study. The preoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) type was paroxysmal in 36%, permanent in 53%, persistent in 5% and flutter in 6% patients. The left atrial diameter was <50 mm in 78 patients and >50 mm in 25. Long-term results, up to 4 years, and postablation antiarrhythmics were evaluated. Follow-up studies including 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and 24-h Holter ECG obtained at 3 and 6 months in our institute, and 12, 24, and 48 months during outpatient visits. Results: No device- or procedure-related complications or deaths were observed. A pacemaker was implanted in 5% patients. Freedom from AF and flutter at 6-/12-/and 48-month visit were 66%/63%/68% for the entire population, 84%/77%/90% in patients with paroxysmal AF, 50%/46%/40% in patients with permanent AF and at any time in all 6 patients with flutter. No significant changes were noted at 2 years. Postablation results were not statistically different in patients on or not on antiarrhythmic therapy. At discharge, 53% of patients on antiarrhythmics and 55%, not on AADs were free of AF. At the 6-month visit, 66% of patients on AADs versus 69% of patients, not on AADs presented with SR, an improved outcome by 13 percentage points with AADs versus 14 percentage points without AADs (p = 0.65). Patients taking a β-blocker showed better results in restoration/maintenance of SR after 6 months. No significant difference was noted regarding the use of UltraWand. Sixty-seven percent with a left atrium (LA) diameter <50 mm were successfully converted into SR, vs. 48% with an LA diameter >50 mm. Best results were achieved in patients with paroxysmal AF and LA <50 mm with 81% freedom of AF. Conclusion: AF treatment with HIFU ablation during concomitant cardiac surgery is a safe and effective procedure for restoring SR, especially in patients with AF and especially in patients with a smaller left atrial diameter. No significant difference was noted between the antiarrhythmic and non drug groups regarding restoration and maintaining SR; however, better results were achieved by those taking a β-blocker.
Objective: To elucidate the effect of bone wax on postoperative bleeding, infection and wound healing. Methods: This study included two independent groups, consisting of 94 patients who were treated with bone wax and 90 patients who received nothing after median sternotomy and just before sternal closure. Demographic and postoperative data were recorded. Both groups were compared with respect to the amount of postoperative drainage, blood transfusion requirement, re-exploration because of bleeding, and mortality rates. Results: Demographic measurements did not differ between the groups. In the first two months of the postoperative period, mediastinitis was not seen in any of the patients in both groups. Superficial wound infection was detected in six patients (6.4%) in Group A. Eight patients (8.9%) suffered from superficial wound infection in Group B (p >0.05). In the first postoperative 24 hours, the average amount of postoperative drainage was 536.89 ml in Group A, whereas it was 529.67 ml in Group B (p >0.05). Three patients in both groups died in the early phase of the postoperative period (p >0.05). There was not any statistically significant difference between groups considering bleeding quantity, mortality, re-exploration, amount of blood used and deep sternal infection. Conclusion: Bone wax does not reduce bleeding on sternal sides. No evidence was found that application of bone wax causes deep sternal infection in patients having median sternotomy for coronary bypass surgery.
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important risk factor for cardiac surgery. In the most recently reported NU-HIT trial for CKD with CKD patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) as subjects, carperitide was reported to be effective in terms of renal function. In the present study, a subanalysis was performed on patients registered in the NU-HIT trial for CKD from the standpoint of renin-angiotensin system, natriuresis and renal function. Methods: 303 patients with CKD who underwent isolated CABG were divided into a group that received carperitide infusion and another group without carperitide. The renin activity, angiotensin-II, aldosterone, urine-sodium, urine- creatinine, fractional sodium excretion, renal failure index, and BNP levels. Results: There were significant lower in hANP group than the placebo group, in angiotensin-II at one day postoperatively, and in aldosterone from 0 day to one month postoperatively. FENa was significantly lower in the hANP group at 3 day and one week postoperatively. Conclusions: In on pump isolated CABG patients with CKD, carperitide showed a potent natriuretic action and inhibited the renin-angiotensin system, suggesting that it prevented deterioration of postoperative renal function. Our findings raise new possibilities for the perioperative and postoperative management of patients undergoing surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.
Propose: Our aim was to determine which criterion- hyperglycemia or high levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) is more associated with increased mortality and morbidity after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Methods: Two hundred and sixteen patients who underwent elective CABG were enrolled in this prospective study. In order to compare postoperative outcomes regarding HbA1c and fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels, the patients were divided into two groups based on plasma HbA1c levels >7% or ≤7% and FBS >126 mg/dl or ≤126 mg/dl. Results: Of 216 studied patients, 165 and 51 cases had levels of HbA1C ≤7% and HbA1c >7% respectively. Furthermore, 129 and 87 patients had levels of FBS of ≤126 mg/dl and FBS of >126 mg/dl respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that patients with high HbA1C levels experienced significantly higher rates of postoperative re-intubation [P = 0.001, OR (95% CI) = 8.15 (2.88-23.09)], wound infection [P = 0.001, OR (95% CI) = 8.15 (2.88-23.09)] and bleeding [P = 0.027, OR (95% CI) = 2.18 (1.10-4.35)]. In addition, hyperglycemic patients had a higher frequency of arrhythmias [P = 0.001, OR (95% CI) = 3.07 (1.69-5.59)], atelectasis [P = 0.029, OR (95% CI) = 1.88 (1.07-3.30)] and wound infection [P = 0.001, OR (95% CI) = 8.75 (2.45-31.25)]. Conclusion: Higher levels of both HbA1C and FBS contribute to the increased risk of morbidity but not mortality rates in post-CABG surgery patients; yet further studies are required to distinguish “a better predictor” of postoperative adverse events.
Purpose: Management of patients with infective endocarditis complicated by neurological deficits is challenging. No clear management guidelines have been defined, and the timing of surgery remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate our management algorithm. Methods: Thirty-eight adult patients with left-sided infective endocarditis undergoing valve surgery were analyzed. Before the operation, enhanced brain computed tomography (CT) was performed to rule out a cerebral complication. Pre and postoperative data were retrospectively reviewed to clarify whether our algorithm was effective. Sixteen patients having neurological complication (CVC group) were compared with 22 patients without neurological complication. Results: Age, sex, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, affected valve and pathogens were not different between two groups. Mean interval from the onset of neurological dysfunction to cardiac operation was 27.8 ± 27.8 days (median 23 days). Of the 16 CVC group patients, 12 experienced cerebral infarction. Mass effects were seen in 3 patients, with 1 of these 3 patients died following aneurysm rupture. Mycotic aneurysm was detected in 4 patients, with 3 undergoing successful staged operations. Mortality and postoperative neurological exacerbation in CVC group was 6.3% (1 patient). Most patients who fulfilled the algorithm showed good outcomes. Conclusions: Our suggested management algorithm for infective endocarditis appears effective.
Small-cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SCCE) is a rare and rapidly progressive malignant tumor with an extremely unfavorable prognosis. We report a case of long-term survival and review similar cases in the literature. An 84-year-old Japanese woman visited a clinic complaining of tarry stools. Type-1 tumor was detected in the left posterior wall of the middle thoracic esophagus on endoscopic examination, and the pathological diagnosis following immunohistochemical examination was SCCE. Chemoradiotherapy was adopted after taking the characteristics of poor prognosis, rapid progression, and patient age into consideration. Chemoradiotherapy comprised 56 Gy of irradiation over43 days and two courses chemotherapy with cisplatin and vincristine. Therapeutic effect was evaluated as complete response after endoscopic examination and computed tomography at one month after treatment. No recurrence or metastasis has been identified as of more than five years after achieving complete response, with endoscopic examination every six months and computed tomography every three months. To date, long-term survival has only been reported in octogenarian patients with SCCE, and the present case describes the oldest patient for whom successful radical therapy has been reported.
A 67-year-old man, diagnosed as primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma by intraoperative fine-needle aspiration biopsy cytology, underwent right lower lobectomy with radical lymphadenectomy. The pathological stage was Stage IIA (pT1bN1M0, N-reason: 12Lpositive). After surgery, nodular shadows without intrathoracic lymph node or distant metastasis were demonstrated metachronously three times by follow-up CT. Wedge resection was performed for each of the tumors, and the pathological diagnosis in each case was primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma, Stage IA (T1b), IA (T1a) and IA (T1a), respectively.Five years after the initial pulmonary resection, a follow-up abdominal CT revealed a20-mm nodular shadow. We suspected that this pancreatic tumor might be a primary rather than metastatic one, therefore, pancreatoduodenectomy was performed. Pathological examination revealed adenocarcinoma that was positive for thyroid transcription factor (TTF)-1, allowing a final diagnosis of metastatic pulmonary adenocarcinoma.This case is very rare, because most cases of pancreatic metastasis from lung cancer have already widespread disease at the time of diagnosis.This case illustrates that pancreatic metastasis from pulmonary adenocarcinoma should be borne in mind, even if the pancreatic tumor is a solitary lesion without additional organ metastasis.
This case report presents an intrapulmonary bronchogenic cyst exhibiting a unique shape. The patient was a 19-year-old man who had been diagnosed with a posterior mediastinal tumor by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, 2 years previously. The imaging revealed that the tumor was located on the left side of the posterior mediastinum and was 45 × 25 mm in size. As the size and shape of the tumor did not change in the 2 years after its detection, surgical extraction was planned. Preoperative diagnosis was, firstly, a neurogenic tumor originating in the posterior mediastinum.Surgical findings revealed that the tumor formed a bridge between the visceral pleura of the left lower lobe and the chest wall, and most of the tumor was located in the thoracic cavity. Pathological diagnosis was intrapulmonary bronchogenic cyst. An intrapulmonary bronchogenic cyst with a unique shape, as observed in this case, is very rare.Although preoperative imaging could predict the tumor size, it could not confirm where the tumor originated. Surgical resection of this type of tumor, which is diagnosed preoperatively as a posterior mediastinal tumor, is a superior strategy for precise diagnosis and treatment.
A 34-year-old man presented with pulmonary vein isolation due to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. During the standard procedure, the circular mapping catheter became dislocated and was caught in the mitral valve apparatus. Following multiple failed attempts to remove the catheter in the catheterization laboratory, the patient needed an emergency operation using the heart-lung machine.