Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Online ISSN : 2186-1005
Print ISSN : 1341-1098
ISSN-L : 1341-1098
Volume 26, Issue 3
Displaying 1-8 of 8 articles from this issue
Review Articles
  • Chunyu Zhong, Shali Tan, Yutang Ren, Muhan Lü, Yan Peng, Xiangsheng Fu ...
    2020 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 113-124
    Published: 2020
    Released on J-STAGE: June 20, 2020
    Advance online publication: March 04, 2020
    Supplementary material

    Background: Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a novel minimally invasive intervention for treating esophageal achalasia. Previous publications have proved its excellent efficacy and safety, and even shown it could improve patients’ quality of life (QoL). So, we conducted this study to explore the changes of QoL following POEM.

    Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library covering the period from January 2009 to April 2019. The statistical analysis was carried out using Review Manager 5.3.

    Results: A total of 12 studies including 549 patients were identified, which assessed the QoL using validated questionnaires administered. After POEM, the SF-36 questionnaire score of each domain (physical function, role physical function, body pain, general health (GH), social function, vitality, emotional role function, mental health) was significantly increased (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, mental component scale (MCS) and physical component scale (PCS) scores were all improved in patients after POEM procedure (MCS: 12.11, 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.67–19.55, p = 0.001, I2 = 88%, PCS: 17.01, 95% CI, 2.91–31.11, p = 0.02, I2 = 97%). The gastroesophageal reflux disease health-related quality of life questionnaires (GERD-HRQL) also decreased significantly after POEM (13.01, 95% CI, 9.98–16.03, p < 0.00001, I2 = 30%).

    Conclusions: Our current evidence suggests there is significant improvement in QoL after POEM procedure.

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  • Go Kuwahara, Tadashi Tashiro
    2020 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 125-132
    Published: 2020
    Released on J-STAGE: June 20, 2020
    Advance online publication: May 29, 2020

    Purpose: Off-pump coronary arterial bypass grafting (OPCAB) has become a common practice for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in Japan, with approximately 65% CABG procedures currently being performed using OPCAB. However, it is unclear whether OPCAB is superior in terms of associated mortality, incidence of complications, graft patency rate, and long-term outcomes compared with conventional CABG (CCABG).

    Methods: Literature consideration was performed, mainly based on observational studies involving large samples and randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

    Results: Many RCTs indicated that the acute-phase and long-term mortality rates were comparable between CCABG and OPCAB or that OPCAB was inferior to CCABG. In contrast, many observational studies indicated that OPCAB was superior to CCABG.

    Conclusion: CABG is a delicate procedure, the outcomes of which vary in accordance with the patient’s condition as well as the level of expertise of the associated institution and surgeon. In the future, we hope that reports will emerge with excellent results, including long-term results, from Japanese institutions experienced in performing OPCAB.

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Original Articles
  • Tadashi Matsuoka, Hiroharu Shinozaki, Soji Ozawa, Yoshimitsu Izawa, Ka ...
    2020 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 133-139
    Published: 2020
    Released on J-STAGE: June 20, 2020
    Advance online publication: October 18, 2019

    Purpose: The activity of corticosteroids, ascorbic acid, and thiamine against oxidative and inflammatory responses was evaluated in patients undergoing esophagectomy. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of this combined therapy on lung dysfunction following esophagectomy.

    Methods: In this retrospective before–after study, we compared the clinical course of consecutive patients undergoing thoracoscopic esophagectomy treated with the combination of corticosteroids, ascorbic acid, and thiamine between June and December 2018 with a control group treated with corticosteroids alone between January 2016 and May 2018. Outcomes included oxygenation (arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/fractional concentration of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratios), duration of mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay.

    Results: In all, 17 patients were included in this study (6 in the combination therapy group and 11 patients in the control group). Mean PaO2/FiO2 ratios in the combined therapy group were significantly higher than in the control group at all points during the observation period (p <0.001). In the combined therapy group, the duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay were significantly shorter (p <0.001, p = 0.009).

    Conclusions: This study suggests that combined therapy including corticosteroids, ascorbic acid, and thiamine may be effective in improving oxygenation after esophagectomy. Additional studies are required to confirm these preliminary findings.

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  • Ping Yang, Peng Wu, Xing Liu, Jian Feng, Shuzhan Zheng, Yan Wang, Zhon ...
    2020 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 140-150
    Published: 2020
    Released on J-STAGE: June 20, 2020
    Advance online publication: November 14, 2019

    Purpose: Stanford type A aortic dissection (TAAD) is one of the most dangerous cardiovascular diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been considered as potential therapeutic targets for TAAD. In this present study, we aimed to investigate the functional role and regulatory mechanism of miR-26b in TAAD development.

    Materials and Methods: MiR-26b mRNA expression was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and protein levels were measured by Western blot. Verifying the direct target of miR-26b was used by dual luciferase assay, RT-PCR, and Western blot. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and TUNEL staining assays were applied for detecting rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) viability and apoptosis, respectively.

    Results: We found that miR-26b was under-expressed in TAAD patients and closely associated with the poor prognosis of TAAD patients. Re-expression of miR-26b facilitated while knockdown of miR-26b inhibited VSMC proliferation. However, miR-26b showed the opposite effect on cell apoptosis. More importantly, high-mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) was verified as the direct target of miR-26b. Furthermore, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)/Smad3 signaling pathway was involved in the development of TAAD modulated by miR-26b.

    Conclusion: miR-26b impeded TAAD development by regulating HMGA2 and TGF-β/Smad3 signaling pathway, which provided a potential biomarker for TAAD treatment.

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  • Naoki Taniguchi, Mitsuharu Hosono, Shintaro Kuwauchi, Hiroshi Yasumoto ...
    2020 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 151-157
    Published: 2020
    Released on J-STAGE: June 20, 2020
    Advance online publication: January 29, 2020

    Purpose: We investigated the utility of trunk muscle cross-sectional area to predict length of hospitalization after surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis (AS).

    Methods: Adult AS patients who underwent isolated AVR at a single institution were studied. The cross-sectional area of the erector spinae muscles (ESM) at the first and second lumbar vertebrae and that of the psoas muscle (PM) at the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae were measured on preoperative computed tomography (CT). Each was indexed to body surface area. Risk factors for prolonged postoperative hospitalization (>3 weeks) were assessed using multivariate regression analyses.

    Results: Of 56 patients (mean age 76 ± 9 years; 25 men), 20 (35.7%) patients required prolonged hospitalization. A smaller indexed ESM cross-sectional area at the first lumbar vertebra (per 1 cm/m2, odds ratio [OR] = 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.57–0.88, P <0.01) and lower preoperative serum albumin level (per 0.1 g/dL, OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.70–0.99, P <0.05) were shown as independent predictors. Indexed PM cross-sectional area was not statistically significant.

    Conclusion: The cross-sectional area of the trunk muscles can be used to identify patients at risk for prolonged hospitalization after AVR for adult AS.

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  • Fei Li, Xu Wang, Yuetang Wang, Fei Xu, Xin Wang, Xuan Li, Wei Wang
    2020 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 158-165
    Published: 2020
    Released on J-STAGE: June 20, 2020
    Advance online publication: April 03, 2020

    Purpose: Our study aimed to investigate the structural valve deterioration (SVD) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) using J-Valve.

    Methods: In all, 14 patients with aortic stenosis (AS) and 4 patients with pure aortic regurgitation (PAR) were available in the study. Four-year follow-up was performed in all patients, and the clinical data and echocardiographic findings were recorded and analyzed.

    Results: All patients survived at the 4-year follow-up. There was no evidence of morphological SVD or prosthetic valve thrombosis in enrolled patients. None of the hemodynamic SVD occurred in patients with PAR. Mean gradients decreased from 61.93 ± 15.42 mm Hg (pre-TAVI) to 19.64 ± 9.16 mm Hg (discharge) in patients with AS (p <0.001); subsequently, a slight increase was observed in the mean trans-aortic gradient throughout follow-up (p = 0.967). Overall, in patients with AS, six individuals suffered moderate (3/14, 21.4%) or severe (3/14, 21.4%) hemodynamic SVD at 4-year follow-up.

    Conclusions: The limited number of cases provides a preliminary indication of the long-term efficacy of TAVI using J-Valve in patients with PAR. In patients with AS, although the higher rate of SVD was observed, the overall transcatheter heart valve (THV) hemodynamics remained stable over time after prosthetic valve implantation and the long-term durability of J-Valve was convincing.

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Case Reports
  • Yu-San Chien, Yen-Chun Chao, Kuo-Sheng Lee, Kung-Hong Hsu
    2020 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 166-169
    Published: 2020
    Released on J-STAGE: June 20, 2020
    Advance online publication: May 18, 2018

    We reported a case of ruptured tracheoinnominate fistula in a 14-year-old boy with history of repeated sternotomy. Tracheostomy was performed at age 2 years. Slide tracheoplasty was done at age 13 years. He presented to outpatient clinic with episodic hemosputum. Massive blood emanated from stoma during bronchoscopy evaluation. Venous-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was installed for resuscitation. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and angiography confirmed the diagnosis. Immediate control of bleeding was achieved by an endovascular stent graft deployed at innominate artery. Massive hemorrhage recurred on day 7. An aortic arch stent was inserted and all arch vessels debranching via supraclavicular collar excision was performed. A covered stent was used to fenestrate the aortic stent and establish antegrade blood flow to all neck vessels via left common carotid artery. The patient remained stable at 10-month follow-up. Combination of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, endovascular intervention, and surgical bypass could be effective in treating critical patients.

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  • Takanori Kono, Takeshi Oda, Keiichi Akaiwa, Katsuhiko Nakamura, Kenya ...
    2020 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 170-173
    Published: 2020
    Released on J-STAGE: June 20, 2020
    Advance online publication: April 20, 2018

    Metal allergy is an uncommon problem during surgery. Among them, titanium allergy is said to be rare, but can lead to serious complications, such as palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP). A 69-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a chief complaint of chest pain. Coronary angiography showed severe coronary artery disease that required coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The patient had a history of orthopedic surgery for left distal radius fracture 2 years previously, which resulted in inflammation on the left arm and PPP. We suspected titanium allergy based on results of skin patch tests and use of titanium alloy in the previous orthopedic operation. The patient underwent CABG without use of permanent metallic material. As a result, her PPP disappeared. In this rare case, it is difficult to identify the exact cause of the improvement in PPP; thus, further studies are required to clarify the mechanism of remission.

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