Purpose: The principal of this analysis was to understand global feature of the number and type of grafts and number of diseased vessels of those undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and their short-term clinical results.
Methods and Results: This report presents annual report on the collective data of CABG in the year 2018 (1 January–31 December). Data were collected based on the series of questionnaire which has been performed by The Japanese Association for Coronary Artery Surgery (JACAS), capturing the corresponding data from the Japan Adult Cardiovascular Surgery Database (JCVSD). We also analyzed descriptive clinical results of those undergoing surgeries for acute myocardial infarction and ischemic mitral regurgitation.
Conclusion: This is the first article summarizing the results from annually performed questionnaires by JACAS based on JCVSD, on the trend of CABG procedures and clinical results in Japan as a scientific manuscript.
Minimally invasive surgery/coronary artery bypass grafting (MICS CABG) via left thoracotomy and multiple CABG is a reported alternative to the standard sternotomy approach. However, harvesting the right internal thoracic artery (RITA) under direct vision requires high surgical skill. We describe MICS CABG with the left internal thoracic artery (LITA) and a composite graft using the in situ right gastroepiploic artery (GEA) and radial artery (RA) to achieve complete coronary revascularization. No complications occurred, and postoperative computed tomography showed patency of all grafts. Our experience suggests that this composite graft can be used safely and effectively in MICS CABG for complete arterial revascularization without difficulty.
Purpose. Surgical lung biopsy (SLB) is an important diagnostic tool for interstitial lung disease (ILD), yet the risk factors for SLB are still debatable and long-term outcomes remain unknown.
Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 85 consecutive patients with ILD who underwent SLB by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) from 2008 to 2019. Risk factors for complications and differences of outcomes between idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and other ILDs were examined.
Results. All patients who underwent VATS had no mortality or acute exacerbation of ILD within 90 days of SLB. The rate of complication was 9.4%, and there were no statistically significant risk factors for complications. While the IPF group was not significantly different from the non-IPF group with regard to surgical parameters or complications, patients with IPF had significantly higher rates of mortality (50% vs. 9% in 5 years; p <0.001) and readmission due to acute exacerbation (75% vs. 8% in 5 years; p <0.001).
Conclusion. VATS lung biopsy for ILD can be a safe approach regardless of underlying phenotypes. An accurate diagnosis of IPF via SLB may be beneficial for correct patient management.
Background: Whether continuous thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) and continuous paravertebral block (PVB) have similar analgesic effects in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy was compared in this study.
Methods: In all, 86 patients undergoing VATS lobectomy were enrolled in the prospective, randomized clinical trial. Group E received TEA. Group P received PVB. The primary endpoint was postoperative 24-hour visual rating scale (VAS) on coughing. Side effects and postoperative complications were also analyzed.
Results: Pain scores at rest or on coughing at 24 and 48 h postoperatively were significantly lower in group E than in group P (P <0.05). At 24 h postoperatively, more patients in group E suffered from vomiting (32.6% vs 11.6%, P = 0.019), dizziness (55.8% vs 12.9%, P = 0.009), pruritus (27.9% vs 2.3%, P = 0.002), and hypotension (32.6% vs 4.7%, P = 0.002) than those in group P. Patients in group E were more satisfied (P = 0.047). Four patients in group P and two patients in group E suffered from pulmonary complications (P >0.05). The length of hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stays were not significantly different.
Conclusions: Though TEA has more adverse events than PVB, it may be superior to PVB in patients undergoing VATS lobectomy.
Objective: In this study, we aimed to reveal the prognostic differences between skip and non-skip metastasis mediastinal lymph node (MLN) metastasis.
Methods: A total of 202 patients (179 males and 23 females; mean age, 59.66 ± 9.89 years; range: 29–84 years) who had ipsilateral single-station MLN metastasis were analyzed in two groups retrospectively between January 2009 and December 2017: “skip ipsilateral MLN metastasis” group (sN2) (n = 55,27.3%) [N1(–), N2(+)], “non-skip ipsilateral MLN metastasis” group (nsN2) (n = 147,72.7%) [N1(+), N2(+)].
Results: The mean follow-up was 42.63 ± 34.91 months (range: 2–117 months). Among all patients, and in the sN2 and nsN2 groups, the median overall survival times were 63.5 ± 4.56, 68.8 ± 7, and 59.3 ± 5.35 months, respectively, and the 5-year overall survival rates were 38.2%, 46.3%, and 36.4%.
Conclusion: Skip metastasis did not take its rightful place in TNM classification; thus, further studies will be performed. To detect micrometastasis, future studies on skip metastasis should examine non-metastatic hilar lymph nodes (LNs) through staining methods so that heterogeneity in patient groups can be avoided, that is, to ensure that only true skip metastasis cases are included. Afterwards, more accurate and elucidative studies on skip metastasis can be achieved to propound its prognostic importance in the group of N2 disease.
Purpose: The course of coexisting mitral valve stenosis is not clear after aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis (AS). We investigated the effect of AVR for AS on coexisting mitral stenosis (MS).
Methods: Between January 2002 and December 2019, 1338 consecutive patients underwent surgical AVR at Shiga University of Medical Science. Of them, 34 patients with moderate MS (mitral valve area [MVA]: 1.5–2.0 cm2) were included in the present study. We evaluated the postoperative clinical outcomes in these patients.
Results: Mean MVA in our cohort significantly increased 1 week after operation compared with preoperative values, and the change was maintained for 5 years after surgery. Follow-up was completed in 94.1% (32/34) patients, and mean follow-up duration was 4.0 ± 3.0 years. No patients underwent mitral surgery for remaining MS after AVR during postoperative follow-up.
Conclusion: AVR for AS resulted in increased MVA in patients with MS, and the change was maintained during follow-up.
Purpose: Unlike loop diuretics, tolvaptan is reported to have a renal protective effect. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively assess the efficacy of tolvaptan administration in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients following open-heart surgery.
Methods: From February 2017 to August 2020, 75 patients with preoperative CKD stages IIIb–V were enrolled in this study and were divided into two groups: the control group (n = 30) and the tolvaptan group (n = 45). All patients routinely received conventional diuretics starting from postoperative day (POD) 1. Tolvaptan at 7.5–15 mg/day was administered if the patients had persistent fluid retention or poor response to conventional diuretics.
Results: Tolvaptan administration was initiated at a mean of POD 2.9 ± 2.2, and the mean dosing period was 4.1 ± 3.0 days. The mean time to return to the preoperative body weight in the control and tolvaptan groups was similar. However, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was significantly increased at the time when body weight reached the preoperative level and at discharge in the tolvaptan group than in the control group.
Conclusion: This study demonstrated the renal protective effect of tolvaptan even in advanced CKD patients after open-heart surgery.
The progress and popularization of microvascular surgical techniques may improve the outcomes of esophageal reconstruction using non-gastric tube (GT) grafts. A pedicled jejunum (PJ) with microvascular anastomoses is frequently selected as a reconstructed conduit for esophageal reconstruction when the GT is unavailable, and the internal thoracic (IT) vein is frequently selected as a recipient blood vessel for microvascular anastomosis. However, the IT vein may be inadequate for microvascular anastomosis because of its absence or underdevelopment. Since it is difficult to preoperatively predict such rare cases, it becomes necessary to urgently and rapidly prepare an alternative blood vessel. Herein, we present surgical procedures for superdrainage using the cephalic vein (CeV). Due the superficial nature of the CeV, it is both easy to identify and collect sufficient length. Thus, the CeV is very useful as an urgent substitute blood vessel when the IT vein is unavailable for microvascular anastomosis in esophageal reconstruction.
In 2002, a 37-year-old male with Marfan syndrome underwent the Bentall operation, total arch replacement, and aortobifemoral bypass for DeBakey type IIIb chronic aortic dissection, annuloaortic ectasia, and aortic regurgitation. In 2007, mild mitral regurgitation (MR) caused by mitral valve prolapse was identified. In April 2017, echocardiography revealed the worsening of MR and moderate tricuspid regurgitation (TR). Moreover, coronary angiography (CAG) revealed a coronary artery aneurysm in the left main trunk (LMT). In August 2017, the patient underwent mitral valve replacement (MVR), tricuspid annuloplasty (TAP), and coronary artery reconstruction. We reconstructed the LMT aneurysm using an artificial graft. True aneurysm of the coronary artery complicated with Marfan syndrome is a rare complication that has seldom been reported. This case highlights that it is essential to carefully follow-up patients with Marfan syndrome after the Bentall operation.