Chylothorax is caused by the accumulation of chylous fluid in the pleural cavity due to the injury of the thoracic duct or its tributaries. Chylothorax following lung cancer surgery, especially pulmonary resection and mediastinal lymph node dissection, is a raw potential postoperative complication as previously reported. Chylothorax might lead to a high mortality rate if not addressed in a timely fashion. This article reviews the anatomy of the thoracic duct, risk factors of postoperative chylothorax, diagnoses and management with chylothorax, and intraoperative prevention of chylothorax. With the development of researches on postoperative chylothorax, more effective treatment and prevention measures need to be proposed to better solve this clinical problem.
Purpose: Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a potential serious complication of lobectomy or more radical surgery for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to evaluate the risk factors for BPF.
Methods: The study cohort comprised 635 patients who had undergone lobectomy or more radical surgery for NSCLC from March 2005 to December 2017. We examined the following risk factors for BPF: surgical procedure, medical history, preoperative treatment, and surgical management.
Results: In all, 10 patients (1.6%) had developed postoperative BPFs. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that surgical procedure, medical history (arteriosclerosis obliterans [ASO]), and bronchial stump reinforcement were significant risk factors. Multivariate analysis showed that only surgical procedure (right lower lobectomy, p = 0.011, odds ratio = 17.4; right middle lower lobectomy, p = 0.003, odds ratio = 59.4; right pneumonectomy, p <0.001, odds ratio = 166.0) was a significant risk factor. Multivariate analysis confined to the surgical procedure of lobectomy showed that right lower lobectomy (p = 0.011, odds ratio = 36.5) and diabetes (HbA1c ≥8.0) (p = 0.022, odds ratio = 31.7) were significant risk factors.
Conclusion: When lobectomy or more radical surgery is performed for NSCLC, right lower lobectomy, middle lower lobectomy, and right pneumonectomy are significant risk factors for postoperative BPF. Thoracic surgeons should acquire the techniques of bronchoplasty and angioplasty to avoid such invasive procedures.
Background: The lobar airway stenting remains an endoscopic procedure not well standardized in patients with locally advanced lung cancer disease. The goal of this study was to evaluate technical feasibility, clinical outcome, and complications of different stents in patients with malignant lesions involving lobar bronchi, primary and secondary carina.
Methods: Between November 2008 and October 2013, we retrospectively analyzed 146 patients with benign and malignant tracheobronchial stenosis who underwent airway stent insertion below main carina and main bronchi.
Results: In all, 170 airway stenting procedures were performed on 146 patients. In all, 51 of them with malignant peripheral airway stenosis underwent stents placement below main carina. In all but one patient, the deployment of stents was successful with improvement of symptoms. The chest radiograph after the procedure detected the lung re-expansion in 29 of 51 patients. The mean follow-up duration was 123 days ± 157. Complications observed included stent migration, tumor overgrowth, infections, granulation tissue formation, and obstruction due to tenacious secretions. Longer survival was observed in patients who received additional treatment after airway stenting compared to those who did not (p <0.01).
Conclusions: Stenting of lobar bronchi and primary or secondary carina is technically feasible, effective, and acceptably safe.
Purposes: Patients who require surgeries for traumatic post-tracheotomy tracheal stenosis (PTTS) often cannot be supported using conventional airway management approaches. This study documents the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in patients with PTTS.
Methods: Patient characteristics, procedure, and outcome of patients who required tracheal reconstruction surgery for PTTS supported by ECMO were retrieved and analyzed.
Results: Four patients (mean age 28 years; range 17–48 years) with traumatic PTTS underwent tracheal reconstruction surgery supported by ECMO. The mean time from removal of tracheotomy tube to admission was 3.2 months (range: 1–9 months). The mean diameter of the stenotic segment was 5 mm (range: 4–6 mm). One patient underwent tracheoplasty and semi-tracheostomy with venoarterial ECMO urgently. Three patients underwent tracheal resection and end-to-end anastomosis (TRE) with venovenous ECMO empirically. Intervention success was achieved in 100% (4/4) of patients. The mean duration of ECMO was 35.3 hours (range: 16–53 hours). The overall survival rate was 100% (4/4) within a mean follow-up of 26 months (range: 7–57 months).
Conclusions: ECMO is a safe and feasible method to support oxygenation for patients with critical traumatic PTTS during tracheal reconstruction surgery.
Purpose: Total aortic arch replacement (TAR) with frozen elephant trunk (FET) is the standard operation for treating aortic dissection (AD) patients involving aortic arch with high operative risk due to long circulatory arrest (CA). We used aortic balloon occlusion technique that safely reduced the CA time to 5 min in average and investigated whether it can improve the clinical endpoints.
Methods: All patients diagnosed with AD and underwent TAR with FET operation (123 with aortic balloon occlusion and 221 with conventional method) in Fuwai Hospital during August 2017 and February 2019 was reviewed in this retrospective observational study.
Results: After propensity score matching, the 30-day mortality of aortic balloon occlusion group and conventional group was 4.88% and 11.38% (P = 0.062), respectively. In multivariate analysis, aortic balloon occlusion is one of the factors that reduced the risk for renal and hepatic injury, shortened postoperative conscious revival time, and reduced red blood cell (RBC) transfusion during operation.
Conclusions: The aortic balloon occlusion technique, as a perfusion strategy during operation, could alleviate postoperative complication. This method deserves further attention in future clinical practice for its value in treating patients with higher operative risks.
Purpose: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been associated with increased risk of death in women but not in men. We aimed to explore predictors and long-term mortality in POAF following isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR) surgery in men and women.
Methods: This study included 379 severe aortic stenosis patients with no prior atrial fibrillation (AF) who underwent isolated AVR surgery. We used multiple logistic regression to investigate independent gender-specific predictors of new-onset POAF, and we performed Kaplan–Meier (KM) to determine the impact of POAF in long-term mortality according to gender.
Results: Advanced age and coronary artery disease prevalence were higher among POAF patients in both genders. On multiple analysis, increased postoperative peak lactate was independently associated with POAF in men, while lower mean aortic valve gradient was associated with POAF in women. Area under the curve (AUC) for the model was 0.77 [0.68–0.86] and 0.69 [0.60–0.78] for men and women, respectively. At 4-year follow-up, POAF was linked to increased risk of death in men but not in women.
Conclusion: In severe aortic stenosis, factors associated with POAF and its impact on mortality differed between genders, with an increased risk of death observed only in men.
Purpose: We evaluated the clinical outcomes of aortofemoral bypass (AoFB) and axillofemoral bypass (AxFB) surgeries for complex aortoiliac occlusive disease (AIOD) and compared them from the perspectives of safety and efficacy.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 21 patients with AoFB grafting and 9 patients with AxFB grafting. The demographic information of the patients was examined, and the intra-, peri-, and postoperative results as well as long-term outcomes were evaluated.
Results: In the AoFB, 2 of 21 (9.5%) cases had intra- and perioperative complications, and 4 of 21 (19.0%) cases had postoperative complications; however, there were no postoperative mortalities. In the AxFB, two of nine (22.2%) cases had postoperative graft thrombosis; however, again there were no postoperative mortalities. According to Kaplan–Meier analysis, the primary patency rates in the AoFB and AxFB groups at 5 years were 94.8% and 53.6%, respectively (P = 0.001), while the limb salvage rates at 5 years were 96.4% and 92.9%, respectively (P = 0.320).
Conclusions: Even though the patency rates with AxFB grafting were inferior to those with AoFB grafting, AxFB was able to achieve equivalent limb salvage rates and should thus be considered as an alternative treatment method, especially when limb salvage is a goal.
Introduction: Malignant granular cell tumor (MGCT) of the esophagus is an extremely rare malignancy with a poor prognosis. Literature describing this condition is not sufficient, especially regarding long-term survival.
Presentation of Case: A 52-year-old woman presented with dyspnea and slow onset dysphagia. The endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), bronchoscopy, and positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) supported the suspicion of esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Open wedge esophagectomy and tracheal resection were performed. The histology proved periodic acid–Schiff (PAS)-positive granules in epithelial cells, hyperchromatic nuclei and the positivity of Protein soluble in 100% ammonium sulfate (S-100), vimentin, neuron-specific enolase, laminin, and myelinic proteins. Local recurrence after 10 months required a two-phase esophagectomy with retrosternal gastroplasty. Bone, liver, and mediastinal metastases occurred 6 months later, with overall survival of 34 months.
Discussion: Preoperative histological confirmation is often not reliable. Tracheal invasion increases the perioperative risk and the probability of an unsuccessful resection. Esophagectomy or radical R0 local resection is the only known curative therapy. Repeated resections may increase survival in case of locoregional recurrence. Radiotherapy has a potential for palliative care.
Conclusion: Esophageal MGCT requires a detailed presentation including long-term survival. Early surgical removal of intramural esophageal neoplasms with potentially malignant features is highly recommended. Radical and/or repeated esophageal resections are the only known therapies with curative potential.
Access challenges are sometimes encountered in patients who require transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Transapical (TA) access is a well-established alternative, but it is more invasive than the standard transfemoral (TF) access techniques. We adopted the iliac endoconduit technique to perform TF TAVI in a patient with small-caliber, heavily calcified iliac arteries. This technique could provide an adequate access route for TAVI that is minimally invasive, even for patients with prohibitory iliac anatomy.
Endograft infection after abdominal endovascular aortic repair is a rare but catastrophic complication associated with high perioperative mortality and postoperative recurrent infection. The optimal surgical treatment is still controversial, particularly regarding in situ or extra-anatomical revascularization. Herein, we describe a successful surgically treated case of a patient with an endograft infection complicated with abscess formation in the retroperitoneal space around the right common iliac artery. We performed an aortobifemoral bypass grafting using the reversed L-shaped technique by rerouting the right leg of the new prosthesis to avoid the infected area. The patient is doing well 1 year after surgery without recurrent infection. This technique was considered to be advantageous because revascularization could be performed remotely from the infected area.