Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of single-lumen endotracheal intubation combined with right bronchial occlusion (SLET) under artificial pneumothorax in minimally invasive McKeown esophagectomy.
Methods: A total of 165 patients who underwent minimally invasive McKeown esophagectomy at Peking Union Medical College Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. In all, 48 patients received double-lumen endotracheal intubation (DLET group), and 117 patients received SLET-B (SLET-B group). Clinical data, intraoperative hemodynamics, surgical variables, and postoperative complications were analyzed and compared.
Results: Compared with the DLET group, a shorter intubation time and lower tube dislocation rate were found in the SLET-B group. In the thoracic phase, with the application of artificial pneumothorax, patients in the SLET-B group had lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PetCO2) values and higher pH than those in the DLET group. Patients in the SLET-B group had shorter thoracic phase times and hospital stays and less intraoperative hemorrhage than those in the DLET group. The numbers of thoracic and bilateral recurrent laryngeal lymph nodes harvested were significantly higher in the SLET-B group.
Conclusion: SLET under artificial pneumothorax is feasible and safe in minimally invasive McKeown esophagectomy.
Purpose: Assessing microbiological culture results is essential in the diagnosis of empyema and appropriate antibiotic selection; however, the guidelines for the management of empyema do not mention assessing microbiological culture intraoperatively. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that intraoperative microbiological culture may improve the management of empyema.
Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 47 patients who underwent surgery for stage II/III empyema from January 2011 to May 2019. We compared the positivity of microbiological culture assessed preoperatively at empyema diagnosis versus intraoperatively. We further investigated the clinical characteristics and postoperative outcomes of patients whose intraoperative microbiological culture results were positive.
Results: The positive rates of preoperative and intraoperative microbiological cultures were 27.7% (13/47) and 36.2% (17/47), respectively. Among 34 patients who were culture-negative preoperatively, eight patients (23.5%) were culture-positive intraoperatively. Intraoperative positive culture was significantly associated with a shorter duration of preoperative antibiotic treatment (p = 0.002). There was no significant difference between intraoperative culture-positive and -negative results regarding postoperative complications.
Conclusions: Intraoperative microbiological culture may help detect bacteria in patients whose microbiological culture results were negative at empyema diagnosis. Assessing microbiological culture should be recommended intraoperatively as well as preoperatively, for the appropriate management of empyema.
Objectives: One of the serious problems after lung transplantation is chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Most CLAD patients pathologically characterized by obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4)-Ig is a combination protein of the Fc fragment of human IgG1 linked to the extracellular domain of CTLA4. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of CTLA4-Ig therapy on OB using a mouse intrapulmonary tracheal transplantation (IPTT) model.
Methods: IPTT was performed between BALB/c (donor) and C57BL/6 (recipient) mice. Abatacept, which is a commercially available form of CTLA4-Ig, was intraperitoneally injected in recipient mice immediately after surgery, on days 7, 14, and 21. The mice in the control group received human IgG.
Results: We performed semi-quantitative analysis of graft luminal obliteration at post-transplant day 28. We calculated the obliteration ratio of the lumen of the transplanted trachea in each case. The obliteration ratio was significantly lower in the CTLA4-Ig group than that in the control group (91.2 ± 2.1% vs. 47.8 ± 7.9%, p = 0.0008). Immunofluorescent staining revealed significantly decreased lymphoid neogenesis in the lung.
Conclusions: CTLA4-Ig therapy attenuated tracheal obliteration with fibrous tissue in the mouse IPTT model. The attenuation of fibrous obliteration was correlated with the inhibition of lymphoid neogenesis.
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in the ability of 1-mm and 5-mm section Computed Tomography(CT) to detect pulmonary metastases in patients with pulmonary metastases.
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the CT findings of 106 patients with pulmonary metastases due to malignancies treated at Toho University Omori Medical Center between 2013 and 2020.
Results: Cases with only one nodule evaluated by 5-mm section CT had significantly lower discordance with 1-mm section CT than cases with two or more nodules detected by a 5 mm section (p = 0.0161). After reference to a 1 mm section, cases with only one nodule reevaluated by 5-mm section CT had significantly lower discordance than cases with two or more nodules reevaluated using 5-mm section CT. In cases with only one nodule, reevaluation using a 5 mm section was consistent with evaluation using a 1 mm section. However, this was not observed in cases with two or more nodules, with a significant difference between one nodule and two or more nodules.
Conclusions: If there are two or more nodules observed in 5-mm section CT it may be necessary to reevaluate using 1-mm section CT to determine the exact number of pulmonary metastases.
Purpose: Pulmonary nodules suspected to be cancerous are rarely diagnosed as pulmonary infarction (PI). This study examined the clinical, radiological, and laboratory data in cases diagnosed with PI to determine their potential utility as preoperative diagnostic markers. We also assessed factors affecting the postoperative course.
Methods: A total of 603 cases of peripheral pulmonary nodules undiagnosed preoperatively were resected at Hokkaido University Hospital from 2012 to 2019. Of these, we reviewed cases with a postoperative diagnosis of PI. We investigated clinical symptoms, preoperative laboratory data, radiological characteristics, and postoperative complications.
Results: Four patients (0.7%) were diagnosed with PI. All patients had a smoking history. One patient received systemic steroid administration, and none had predisposing factors for thrombosis. One case showed chronologically increased nodule size. Three cases showed weak uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. One patient with preoperative high D-dimer levels developed a massive pulmonary embolism (PE) in the postoperative chronic phase and was treated with anticoagulants.
Conclusions: Preoperative diagnosis of PI is difficult, and we could not exclude lung cancer. However, if a patient diagnosed with PI has a high D-dimer level, we recommend postoperative physical examination for deep venous thrombosis. Prophylactic anticoagulation therapy should be considered to avoid fatal PE.
Purpose: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a formidable disease with no effective treatment at present. With the goal of developing potential therapies, we attempted to determine whether ethyl pyruvate (EP) could alleviate PAH and its mechanism.
Methods: Pulmonary smooth muscle cells were cultured in conventional low-oxygen environments, and cellular proliferation was monitored after treatment with either EP or phosphate-balanced solution (PBS). Expression of high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) protein were detected by western blot. After hyperkinetic PAH rat models were treated with EP, hemodynamic data were collected. Right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary vascular remodeling were evaluated. Expression of HMGB1 and RAGE protein was also detected.
Results: In vitro, proliferative activity increased in low-oxygen environments, but was inhibited by EP treatment. Furthermore, Western blotting showed the decreased expression of HMGB1 and RAGE protein after EP treatment. In vivo, pulmonary artery pressures were attenuated with EP. Right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary vascular remodeling were also reversed. Additionally, the expression levels of HMGB1 and RAGE were reduced in lung tissues.
Conclusions: EP can alleviate PAH by suppressing the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells via inhibition of HMGB1/RAGE expression.
Purpose: To evaluate the utility of ultrasonographic assessment of blood flow to the lower limb below the cannulation site in minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS).
Methods: Twenty-two patients who underwent ultrasonographic assessment in MICS were reviewed retrospectively. In all patients, the right femoral artery was used for arterial cannulation. Ultrasonographic assessment was performed using a 15-MHz ultrasonography small probe, and regional oxygen saturation was monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).
Results: The mean flow velocity at the distal side of the cannulation site was 46.2 ± 25.4 cm/s. In six patients, a >40% decreased from baseline regional oxygen saturation was observed. In five of the six patients, the flow velocity was very slow, and spontaneous echo contrast was also observed in three cases. Their regional oxygen saturation was improved rapidly after distal leg perfusion. In the remaining case, the flow velocity was not decreased. In another one case, the stenosis at the cannulation site was detected after decannulation and repaired immediately. No limb ischemic complications were observed in this series.
Conclusion: Ultrasonographic assessment combined with the NIRS monitoring is useful to prevent lower limb ischemic complications after femoral arterial cannulation in MICS.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the multichannel-blocker dronedarone for postoperative new onset atrial fibrillation (POAF) as compared to amiodarone.
Methods: Out of 990 patients who underwent cardiothoracic surgery between March 2011 and March 2012, 166 patients who developed POAF and treated with amiodarone or dronedarone were enrolled in this study.
Results: Eighty-nine patients were treated with amiodarone and 77 patients were treated with dronedarone at discharge. Seventy-five percent of patients with dronedarone were treated initially with intravenous amiodarone but quickly converted to oral dronedarone as soon as the mechanical ventilation was weaned off. The rate of conversion in sinus rhythm was not influenced by the resulting amiodarone-to-dronedarone crossover as compared to oral dronedarone only (p <0.247 at the ICU and p <0.640 at the normal care unit). At hospital discharge sinus rhythm was documented in 44% of the amiodarone patients and 99% of the dronedarone patients (p <0.001). The maintenance of sinus rhythm was demonstrated in 82% of the amiodarone patients versus 81% of the dronedarone patients at 6-month follow-up (p <0.804).
Conclusions: Our data demonstrated the higher conversion rate to sinus rhythm in the early phase in the dronedarone group despite a comparable conversion rate in the mid-term phase compared to amiodarone.
Solitary splenic metastasis from primary lung cancer is extremely rare. Here, we demonstrated a solitary splenic metastasis of primary lung cancer that was difficult to distinguish from benign cystic disease. A 69-year-old-female was diagnosed as middle lobe lung cancer. Although preoperative abdominal computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a low-density splenic nodule, fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) revealed no fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the splenic nodule. Therefore, the nodule was diagnosed as benign cystic disease and middle lobe lobectomy was performed. Postoperative pathologic examination demonstrated papillary-predominant adenocarcinoma with mucin, and the tumor was diagnosed as primary lung cancer. However, the splenic nodule continued to increase postoperatively. Splenectomy was undergone 30 months after the pulmonary resection and the splenic tumor was diagnosed as the splenic metastasis of lung cancer. In the 24 months since the splenectomy, no recurrence has been observed in the absence of treatment. Splenectomy was an effective treatment for solitary splenic metastasis of lung cancer in this case. FDG uptake in the splenic tumor was not evident due to marked mucus production.
Glomus tumors originate from a neuroarterial structure called the glomus body, and grow mostly in soft tissue. It is rare for glomus tumors to develop in the respiratory system. The patient of the present case had an abnormal shadow in the right lung on chest X-ray, and computed tomography (CT) findings displayed a lung tumor in the right S6. Bronchoscopy was performed for the diagnosis of the lung tumor, and a polypoid bronchial tumor was unexpectedly found to occupy the right B3. The bronchial tumor was diagnosed as a glomus tumor, and the lung tumor was diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma. The bronchial glomus tumor was cauterized by argon plasma coagulation (APC). Three weeks after the cauterization by APC, the right lower lobectomy was performed for the treatment of the lung adenocarcinoma. The patient has remained disease free for 2 years.