Bilateral internal mammary artery (BIMA) in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has traditionally been limited. This review looks at the recent outcome data on BIMA in CABG focusing on the management of risk factors for mediastinitis, one of the potential barriers for more extensive BIMA utilization. A combination of pre-, intra- and postoperative strategies are essential to reduce mediastinitis. Limited data indicate that the incidence of mediastinitis can be reduced using closed incision negative-pressure wound therapy as a part of these strategies with the possibility of offering patients best treatment options by extending BIMA to those with a higher risk of mediastinitis. Recent economic data imply that the technology may challenge the current low uptake of BIMA by reducing the short-term cost differentials between single internal mammary artery and BIMA. Given that most published randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses of observational long-term outcome data favor BIMA, if short-term complications of BIMA including mediastinitis can be controlled adequately, there may be opportunities for more extensive use of BIMA leading to improved long-term outcomes. An ongoing study looking at BIMA in high-risk patients may provide evidence to support the hypothesis that mediastinitis should not be a factor in limiting the use of BIMA in CABG.
Background: Elderly non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients are increasing. In general, elderly patients often have more comorbidities and worse immune-nutritional condition.
Patients and methods: In total, 122 NSCLC patients aged 75 years or older, underwent thoracic surgery between January 2007 and December 2010. In all, 99 of 122 patients (81.1%) who had preoperative comorbidities were retrospectively analyzed. We evaluated the preoperative immune-nutritional condition using the controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score.
Results: We decided the best cutoff value for CONUT score was 1; as a result, 42 of 99 patients (42.4%) had abnormal preoperative CONUT score. Univariate analyses showed sex (P = 0.0099), smoking status (P = 0.0176), pathological stage (P = 0.0095), and preoperative CONUT score (P = 0.0175) significantly affected overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, pathological stage (relative risk (RR): 2.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10–3.90; P = 0.0268) and preoperative CONUT score (RR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.20–3.67; P = 0.0094) were shown to be independent prognostic factors. In Kaplan–Meier analysis of OS, the preoperative abnormal CONUT score group had significantly shorter OS than did the preoperative normal CONUT score group (P = 0.0152, log-rank test); however, there were no statistical differences both in disease-free survival (DFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS; P = 0.9238 and P = 0.8661, log-rank test, respectively). In total, 22 patients (46.8%) were dead caused by other diseases such as pneumonia or other organs malignancies.
Conclusion: Preoperative abnormal CONUT score is a poor prognostic factor for the elderly NSCLC patients with preoperative comorbidities and might predict poor postoperative outcome caused by not primary lung cancer but other diseases.
Background: Complete blood cell count (CBC)-derived inflammatory biomarkers are widely used as prognostic parameters for various malignancies, but the best predictive biomarker for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unclear. We retrospectively analyzed early-stage NSCLC patients to investigate predictive effects of preoperative CBC-derived inflammatory biomarkers.
Patients and Methods: We selected 311 consecutive patients with pathological stage IA NSCLC surgically resected from April 2006 to December 2012. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional analyses of recurrence-free survival (RFS) were used to test the preoperative systemic immune inflammation index (SII), neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet–lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and monocyte–lymphocyte ratio (MLR).
Results: Preoperative high MLR levels were significantly associated with patient sex, smoking status, and postoperative recurrence (p <0.0001, p = 0.0307, and p = 0.0146, respectively), and preoperative high SII levels were significantly correlated with postoperative recurrence (p = 0.0458). Neither NLR nor PLR were associated with any related factors. Only preoperative MLR levels (p = 0.0269) were identified as an independent predictor of shorter RFS. The relative risk (RR) for preoperative high MLR level versus low level patients was 2.259 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.094–5.000). Five-year RFS rates in patients with preoperatively high MLR levels were significantly lower than in those with low MLR levels (82.21% vs. 92.05%, p = 0.0062). In subgroup analysis by tumor size and MLR level, the high MLR level subgroup with tumors >2 cm had significantly shorter RFS than other subgroups (p = 0.0289).
Conclusions: The preoperative MLR level is the optimal predictor of recurrence in patients with pathological stage IA NSCLC.
Purpose: The diagnostic potential of conventional multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) images, which consist of horizontal, frontal, and sagittal section, in approximating the anatomical distance between tumors and intersegmental planes remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to clarify the validity of decision-making for segmentectomy based on MPR imaging and identify a specific tumor location that is likely to result in the overestimation of the anatomical margin on MPR images.
Methods: The study population included 33 patients who were considered eligible for segmentectomy based on the observation of MPR images, and verified using a commercially available image-analysis software whether the decision-making based on MPR images was indeed correct or not.
Results: MPR image-based assessment resulted in the overestimation of the anatomical margin in as many as 8 (24%) of the 33 patients. Overestimation predominantly occurred in cases involving patients with tumors at certain segments (right S1, right S2, right S3, left S3, and left S4) that had a complex and oblique intersegmental plane.
Conclusion: Conventional MPR image-based assessment frequently resulted in the overestimation of the anatomical margin. We recommend using software-based assessment preoperatively in patients with tumors in the risky segments, particularly in cases involving indistinct tumors.
Purpose: Sivelestat, a neutrophil elastase inhibitor, attenuates global ischemia-induced myocardial damage and coronary endothelial dysfunction. Here, we investigated whether sivelestat exerts the cardioprotective effects against cardioplegic arrest in rat hearts.
Methods: Isolated Langendorff-perfused rat hearts were randomly allocated to three groups and subjected to 2-min infusions with St. Thomas’ Hospital cardioplegic solution No. 2 (STH2) and 30-min global ischemia followed by 60-min reperfusion as follows: (i) control (STH2 treatment only), (ii) sivelestat (19 μmol/L) infusion for the first 10 min of reperfusion, and (iii) sivelestat (19 μmol/L) infusion for 10 min before ischemia and for the first 10 min of reperfusion. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) recovery and troponin T leakage were measured at the end of reperfusion. Coronary flow response to acetylcholine (ACh) was assessed.
Results: Single and multiple doses of sivelestat significantly improved LVDP recovery (69 ± 15 and 69 ± 14 vs 48 ± 15 [control]; p <0.05) and decreased troponin T leakage (0.4 ± 0.3 and 0.7 ± 0.5 vs 1.7 ± 0.6 [control]; p <0.05). Multiple doses of sivelestat significantly improved coronary flow response to ACh (121 ± 9 vs 105 ± 4; p <0.05).
Conclusions: Addition of sivelestat to STH2 attenuates myocardial injury after cardioplegic arrest in rat hearts. This cardioprotective effect was achieved even when sivelestat was administered during early reperfusion.
Objective: Aortic endovascular stent implantation includes thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), hybrid aortic repair (HAR), and ascending aorta stent implantation (AASI). In this study, we compared the surgical outcomes of stent-related type A dissection (SRTAD) compared with spontaneous type A dissection (STAD).
Methods: From July 2011 to July 2014, we identified 17 SRTAD patients received surgical repair in our institution. Propensity score-matching was used to identify 34 STAD patients as controls.
Results: Preoperative data of SRTAD group and STAD group had no statistical difference. Selective cerebral perfusion (SCP) time was longer in SRTAD group than in STAD group (P <0.05). SRTAD group had a longer cross-clamp time compared with STAD group (P <0.05). No intraoperative deaths in two groups. No differences in CPB time and concomitant procedures between two groups. In-hospital mortality was 11.76% (2 of 17) in SRTAD group and 2.9% (1 of 34) in STAD group (P <0.05). No differences were found in intensive care unit (ICU) time, ventilation, paraparesis, and other postoperative complications between SRTAD and STAD groups. No difference was found in survival rate between SRTAD and STAD groups in the postoperative 1-year follow-up.
Conclusions: SRTAD patients received surgical repair had a higher in-hospital mortality compared with STAD, but no differences were found in postoperative complications and mid-term outcomes.
Purpose: Benefits of off-pump coronary bypass (OPCAB) over on-pump (ONCAB) remain controversial. We aimed to evaluate the early impacts of OPCAB vs ONCAB for varying left ventricular (LV) function baselines by applying the non-invasive myocardial work (MW) analysis, which enables further insights in cardiac mechanics, contractility, and efficacy.
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 98 patients (55 ONCAB vs 43 OPCAB). Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and concurrent arterial blood pressure measurements taken at rest, prior to, and early after surgery were performed. Global myocardial work index (GMWI), global constructive work (GCW), and global work efficiency (GWE), inter alia, were quantified.
Results: Preoperatively, OPCAB patients had significantly lower values than ONCAB patients in terms of GMWI (1404.33 ± 585.41 mmHg% vs 1619.07 ± 535.42 mmHg%, p = 0.039), GWE (90% (60%, 96%) vs 93% (74%, 98%), p = 0.028). After surgery, GMWI was reduced in both groups. However, a more significant GMWI impairment occurred early after ONCAB than after OPCAB (−343.14 ± 35.20 mmHg%, p <0.001 vs −224.04 ± 120.91 mmHg%, p = 0.042).
Conclusion: Despite lower preoperative LV function in OPCAB patients, GMWIs after OPCAB were superior to ONCAB, indicating better preservation of systolic LV function early after OPCAB by means of contractility compared to ONCAB. Further studies should investigate the long-term course of MW response and their clinical impact.
A 63-year-old man with protein C deficiency underwent thoracoscopic esophagectomy and digestive reconstruction using a gastric tube for thoracic esophageal cancer. On postoperative day 3, the gastric tube was removed because of anastomotic leakage and gastric tube necrosis. Digestive reconstruction using a free jejunal graft was attempted 140 days after the first surgery. However, thrombus formation in the artery and vein of the jejunal graft resulted in a failed reconstruction. Ten days after this surgery, digestive reconstruction using the colon was performed with intraoperative heparin administered for anticoagulation control. The surgery was successful, with no thrombus formation afterward. When performing digestive reconstruction in patients with conditions predisposing to thrombus formation, perioperative management should be completed with careful attention toward preventing thrombus formation. In particular, appropriate anticoagulation control, such as the administration of intraoperative heparin, is recommended in patients with protein C deficiency because necrosis of the reconstructed organ is likely.
We present the case of a 61-year-old patient with a history of essential thrombocythemia (ET) who was diagnosed as having aortic valve stenosis and dilatation of his ascending aorta. His aortic valve and ascending aorta were replaced under hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA). No clear guideline exists for preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative management of cardiac surgery using HCA for ET patients. After performing risk assessment, we prescribed preoperative aspirin therapy and postoperative care was planned as usual for cardiovascular surgery in our establishment. Unexpectedly, activated clotting time did not exceed 400 seconds, but the course of treatment was otherwise uneventful.
The Montgomery T-tube is widely used to stent airway stenotic diseases. Conventional insertion methods can sometimes fail in the case of long-distance subglottic stenosis due to the flexibility of a T-tube made of silicon, which kinks when forced against resistance. Therefore, an alternative approach can assist in the insertion of an extra-long T-tube, especially when using a long proximal limb. We report herein the case of a patient with a large mediastinal tumor caused by neurofibromatosis type 1 in which airway obstruction was avoided through the use of a novel extra-long T-tube placement technique.