Purpose: The outlines of primary lung cancers are more complicated than those of metastatic lung tumors on computed tomography (CT) images. This feature is useful for clarifying the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules before surgery. We applied fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis for quantification of complexity of tumor outline.Methods: Sequential cases of 72 primary lung cancers (Group PL) and 54 metastatic lung tumors (Group MT) were included. The outline of each tumor on chest CT images was described using polar coordinates, and converted to rectangular coordinates, yielding wave data of the tumor outline. The FFT was then used to analyze the wave data. The complexity index (Cxi) was defined as the sum of the amplitude of all harmonics over a fundamental frequency.Results: The Cxi was higher (P <0.0001) for group PL (10.3 ± 6.7 mm) than for group MT (3.2 ± 2.4 mm), and it was correlated with tumor diameter in both groups. The cut-off equation “Cxi = 0.127 DT + 2.23” provided the highest diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing Group PL from Group MT such as a sensitivity of 95.8%, a specificity of 81.5%, and an accuracy of 89.7%.Conclusion: FFT analysis appears useful for quantification of complexity of the tumor outline.
Purpose: Preoperative radiological predictions of pathological invasiveness must be objective and reproducible in addition to being accurate when considering limited surgery for early lung cancer.Methods: Two cohorts were used for the analysis. Two independent observers traced lesion edges and measured areas and proportions of solid component on tumor images with the largest diameter by high resolution computed tomography images and “Image J” software.Results: The value of the intraclass correlation was 0.997 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.996–0.998) for the area of solid component and 0.979 (95%CI, 0.958–0.986) for the proportion of solid component, suggesting such parameters were reliable in terms of reproducibility. Az value was 0.898 (95%CI, 0.842–0.953) for the area of solid component and 0.882 (95%CI, 0.816–0.949) for the proportion of solid component, demonstrating 2 parameters were both highly predictive of non-invasive adenocarcinoma. The optimal prediction of non-invasive adenocarcinoma with a cut-off value of 7.5 mm2 for the area of solid component resulted in a sensitivity of 85.3% and specificity of 86.2% in Cohort 1 and a sensitivity of 66.7% and specificity of 88.5% in Cohort 2.Conclusion: Image analysis using “Image J” software was promising for predicting non-invasive adenocarcinoma with its limited inter-observer variability and high predictive performance.
Purpose: Tracheal resection and end-to end anastomosis (TRE) is known as standard treatment of tracheal stenosis (TS) and there are various methods to keep ventilation during operation. We reviewed ventilation methods and postoperative outcomes in patients with postintubational (PI) or posttracheostomy (PT) TS.Patients and Methods: From May 2006 to May 2013, 18 patients with PI or PTTS underwent TRE in our hospital. All patients’ records were retrospectively reviewed.Results: The mean duration of intubation and tracheostomy were 14.2 days (range: 2 to 27 days) and 114.9 days (range: 43 to 215 days). The location of stenosis was tube cuffs (n = 10), stoma (n = 6) and double stenosis involving cuff and stoma (n = 2). The mean diameter of stenotic lesion was 5.4 mm (range: 2 to 9 mm. ECMO (n = 4) was performed in critical stenosis. Of two cases with double stenosis, one underwent preoperative endotracheal balloon dilatation and the other underwent TRE with cricoplasty. The overall complication rate was 11.8%. The mean follow-up duration was 14.0 months (range: 0.9 to 56.3 months).Conclusion: Comparing with the literatures, TS treated by TRE in our hospital has shown satisfactory outcomes. To maintain appropriate ventilation for critical stenosis, ECMO could be one of safe methods.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to clarify relationships between intraoperative blood loss (IBL) and long-term postsurgical survival in lung cancer patients.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 1336 patients undergoing surgery: lobectomy in 1016, sublobar resection in 174, pneumonectomy in 106, and combined resection with adjacent organs in 40. The lobectomy group was stratified further by pathologic stages; overall survival difference was examined according to amount of IBL.Results: Volume of IBL differed significantly according to surgical procedure when all patients were included. Within the lobectomy group, IBL differed significantly between gender, pathologic stage, histologic type (adenocarcinoma vs. non-adenocarcinoma), and year of operation (1983 to 2002 vs. 2003 to 2012). After stratification by pathologic stage, survival differed with IBL for stages IB to IIIB. Multivariate analysis identified gender, patients age (<69 vs. ≥69), pathologic stage (IA to IIB vs. IIIA to IV), year of operation, histologic type, and IBL as significant predictors of survival.Conclusion: Since degree of IBL is an independent predictor of overall survival after lung cancer resection, IBL should be minimized carefully during surgery.
Introduction: In octogenarians with early stage of lung cancer, sublobar resection has been shown to be no inferior survival to lobectomy. However, some octogenarians remain physically and mentally active.Methods: We retrospectively studied 65 octogenarians who underwent curative resection for clinical stage I NSCLC (excluding adenocarcinoma in situ). All patients were assessed by cardiologists and underwent stair-climbing tests (five flights, 18 m) and cognitive function tests. Lobectomy was performed in patients who could climb 5 flights of stairs without stopping or oxygen desaturation of >4%.Results: The actuarial survival rate was 68.6% at 5 years, and the median survival time was 109.2 months. Forty-three patients met the criteria for lobectomy. As compared with sublobar resection, lobectomy was associated with significantly higher rates of overall survival (78.4% vs. 48.5%; p = 0.02) and disease-specific survival (88.4% vs. 61.7%; p = 0.02) at 5 years. On multivariate analysis, male sex (hazard ratio, 3.827; 1.382–10.596) and sublobar resection (2.261; 1.054–5.360) were independent risk factors for survival. Mental disorders occurred in 6 patients (9.2%), and their score on preoperative cognitive function tests was significantly lower than that of patients without mental disorders (22.7 vs. 26.0, p <0.01).Conclusion: Outcomes of lobectomy are good in physically and mentally competent octogenarians.
Purpose: It is clinically difficult to differentiate between primary lung cancer (PLC) and metastasis from breast cancer (MBC) in the diagnosis of a solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) observed in a patient with past history of breast cancer. We evaluated several clinical, radiological and pathological variables in patients with SPN in an attempt to identify reliable markers to differentiate them.Methods: Retrospectively we reviewed the clinical, radiological and pathological characteristics of 64 patients with a history of breast cancer resection who subsequently underwent surgical resection of an indeterminate SPN in our institute.Results: The patients with MBC were significantly younger (p = 0.01). Among CT findings, presence of a solid opacity (p <0.01), well-defined tumor (p <0.01) and absence of an air bronchogram (p <0.01) were significantly associated with MBC. Among the intraoperative frozen section pathologic findings, the absence of lepidic or papillary patterns (p <0.01) and the presence of strong fibrosis in the tumor (p <0.01) were significantly correlated with MBC.Conclusion: Although some cases are difficult to confirm the definitive diagnoses of SPN, combining CT and intraoperative pathological findings might enable us to distinguish SPN between MBC and PLC prior to postoperative examinations.
Background: Mediastinitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a serious complication after pediatric cardiac surgery. An outbreak of surgical site infections (SSIs) provided the motivation to implement SSI prevention measures in our institution.Methods: Subjects comprised 174 pediatric patients who underwent open-heart surgery after undergoing preoperative nasal culture screening. The incidence of SSIs and mediastinitis was compared between an early group, who underwent surgery before SSI measures (Group E, n = 73), and a recent group, who underwent surgery after these measures (Group R, n = 101), and factors contributing to the occurrence of mediastinitis were investigated.Results: The incidence of both SSIs and Mediastinitis has significantly decreased after SSI measures. With regard to factors that significantly affected mediastinitis, preoperative factors were “duration of preoperative hospitalization” and “preoperative MRSA colonization,” intraoperative factors were “Aristotle basic complexity score,” “operation time,” “cardiopulmonary bypass circuit volume” and “lowest rectal temperature.” And postoperative factor was “blood transfusion volume.” Patients whose preoperative nasal cultures were MRSA-positive suggested higher risk of MRSA mediastinitis.Conclusions: SSI prevention measures significantly reduced the occurrence of SSIs and mediastinitis. Preoperative MRSA colonization should be a serious risk factor for mediastinitis following pediatric cardiac surgeries.
Purpose: We aimed to develop swine cardiac transplantation model for study of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) and to characterize the mechanisms of its formation.Methods: Heterotropic cardiac transplantation was performed in swine leukocyte antigen mismatched miniature swine, and CAV was induced by immunomodulation by cyclosporine A (CyA). Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed to identify cellular components of CAV. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was developed for detection of 1 and Y-chromosome for identification of cell origin in the female donor to the male recipient heart transplantation model.Results: CAV was successfully developed by immunomodulation of CyA. Severity of CAV revealed more prominent in the distal epicardial coronary arteries than proximal coronary arteries. Phenotype of the SMCs proliferated in the intimal thickening of CAV were mostly embryonal/secretory type. Our new chromosome specific probes for FISH method were useful for discrimination of sex of each cell, and proliferated SMCs were revealed to be mainly donor origin.Conclusion: CAV mimicking human heart transplantation can be developed by appropriate immunomodulation in the swine. In swine CAV, proliferated SMCs seen in the intimal thickening were demonstrated to be from the donor origin.
Purpose: The aim of this study is to elucidate the impact of preoperative and postoperative pulmonary hypertension (PH) on long-term clinical outcomes after mitral valve repair for degenerative mitral regurgitation.Methods: A total of 654 patients who underwent mitral valve repair for degenerative mitral regurgitation between 1991 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into PH(+) group (137 patients) and PH(–) group (517 patients). Follow-up was complete in 99.0%. The median follow-up duration was 7.5 years.Results: Patients in PH(+) group were older, more symptomatic and had higher tricuspid regurgitation grade. Thirty-day mortality was not different between 2 groups (p = 0.975). Long-term survival rate was lower in PH(+) group; 10-year survival rate after the operation was 85.2% ± 4.0% in PH(+) group and 89.7% ± 1.8% in PH(–) group (Log-rank, p = 0.019). The incidence of late cardiac events were not different between groups, however, the recurrence of PH was more frequent in PH(+) group. The recurrence of PH had an adverse impact on survival rate, late cardiac events and symptoms. Univariate analysis showed age and preoperative tricuspid regurgitation grade were the predictors of PH recurrence.Conclusion: Early surgical indication should be advocated for degenerative mitral regurgitation before the progression of pulmonary hypertension and tricuspid regurgitation.
Background: In thoracoabdominal aneurysm (TAAA) repair, our technical modification of visceral reconstruction using longer cut pre-sewn side branches has provided good surgical outcomes. Here, we assessed the long-term durability and patency of revascularized branches using computed tomography (CT) to confirm the validity of our approach.Methods: Early and late CT evaluations were performed in 11 TAAA patients (males: 5; mean age: 60.6 years) using the Coselli graft to evaluate the position of main graft and the diverging pattern and patency of side branches. Seven of 11 were sutured in an extra-anatomical fashion using longer cut side branches.Results: In Anatomical (n = 4) and Extra-anatomical (n = 7) groups, the early patency of side branches was not significantly different. Although the late patency of right renal artery (RA) was 100% in both groups, the one of left RA was 60% in Extra-anatomical, while 100% in Anatomical. Furthermore, the main graft in Extra-anatomical was significantly posterior and leftward to the spine with left RA side branch diverging at an acute angle.Conclusions: When a pre-sewn branched graft designed for TAAA is used, the graft should be sutured in a fashion similar to normal patient anatomy to minimize the possibility of kinking of RA side branch for the patency.
Purpose: We investigated the influence of intraoperative continuous tranexamic acid (TA) infusion on the amount of blood transfusion required in emergency surgery for type A acute aortic dissection.Methods: The study was based on the data of 55 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for type A acute aortic dissection. The patients were divided into 2 groups for comparison: Group T, consisting of 26 patients who received intraoperative continuous infusion of TA, and Group N, consisting of 29 patients who did not receive TA infusion during the surgery.Results: The mean amounts of blood transfusion required during and after surgery were compared between the 2 groups: they were 10.5 ± 8.7 and 16.2 ± 10.0 units of mannitol-adenine-phosphate-added red cell concentrate, 9.3 ± 8.6 and 17.1 ± 10.0 units of fresh frozen plasma, and 20.4 ± 12.2 and 29.7 ± 14.9 units of platelet concentrate, respectively, in Groups T and N. Thus, the amount of each of these blood products required was significantly reduced in Group T.Conclusions: During emergency surgery for type A acute aortic dissection, continuous infusion of TA resulted in a significant reduction in the amount of blood transfusion required.
Purpose: The present study investigated the correlation between extend aortic cross-clamping time and peripheral nerve injury on rats.Methods: 24 male, Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups; (a) control group: abdomen was directly closed after reached aorta, and followed by 72 hours, (b) short-term ischaemia-reperfusion group: peripheral nerve ischemia was induced in rats by supraceliac aortic occlusion for 20 min followed by 72 h of reperfusion, (c) long-term ischaemia-reperfusion group: peripheral nerve ischemia was induced for 30 min followed by 72 h of reperfusion. Preoperative and postoperative, electromyography (EMG) recordings were done. End of 72 h, the sciatic nerves were harvested from each animal for histopathological and biochemical analysis.Results: The mean compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude of long-term ischaemia-reperfusion group was statically significant reduced when compared to the control group (p <0.01). However, the mean distal latency value of long-term ischaemia-reperfusion group was statically significant increased (p <0.01). On the other hand, there were statically significant differences between the results of malondialdehyde, edema and ischemia fiber degeneration grades on control and long-term ischaemia-reperfusion group (p <0.001).Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the extending cross clamping time directly harms the peripheral nerve of rats.
We present the case of a 66-year-old female who had undergone pulmonary wedge resection for diagnosis and followed by a radical lobectomy for the treatment of the primary lung cancer. We performed a left upper lobectomy through Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS), we successfully adapted simultaneous stapling technique to division of both pulmonary vein and lobar bronchus which were densely adhered each other because of the previous surgery.
Aortic-left ventricular tunnel is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly, which always arises from the right coronary sinus and enters the left ventricle, occasionally the right ventricle and right atrium. However, aortic and left ventricular tunnel associated with infective endocarditis is rarely seen in literatures. Here, we present a case of aortic and left ventricular tunnel associated with infective endocarditis in a 47-year-old man.
The fissureless lobectomy or anterior fissureless technique is a novel surgical technique, which avoids dissection of the lung parenchyma over the pulmonary artery during lobectomy by open thoracotomy approach or direct vision thoracoscopic surgery. This technique is indicated for fused lobes. We present two cases where thoracoscopic pulmonary segmentectomy was performed using the fissureless technique simulated by three-dimensional (3D) pulmonary models. The 3D model and rapid prototyping provided an accurate anatomical understanding of the operative field in both cases. We believe that the construction of these models is useful for thoracoscopic and other complicated surgeries of the chest.
Preoperative three-dimensional (3D) imaging of a mediastinal tumor using two-dimensional (2D) axial computed tomography is sometimes difficult, and an unexpected appearance of the tumor may be encountered during surgery. In order to evaluate the preoperative feasibility of a 3D mediastinal model that used the rapid prototyping technique, we created a model and report its results. The 2D image showed some of the relationship between the tumor and the pericardium, but the 3D mediastinal model that was created using the rapid prototyping technique showed the 3D lesion in the outer side of the extrapericardium. The patient underwent a thoracoscopic resection of the tumor, and the pathological examination showed a rare middle mediastinal ectopic thymoma. We believe that the construction of mediastinal models is useful for thoracoscopic surgery and other complicated surgeries of the chest diseases.