Thoracotomic esophagectomy followed by cervical and abdominal procedures has been conventionally performed as the best curable operative procedure for treating invasive thoracic esophageal carcinoma. Despite improvements in the survival rate, the procedure is associated with significant operative morbidity and mortality rates due to the extreme invasiveness of an extensive dissection of the lymph nodes. Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) was developed to reduce surgical invasiveness. Recently, the use of thoracoscopic esophagectomy performed in the prone position has stimulated new interest in minimally invasive approaches. However, the advantages and disadvantages of this technique are not well known. In this review, the literature to date, including series and comparative studies of minimally invasive esophagectomy performed in the prone position, is summarized, and the various lessons learned and controversies surrounding this technique are addressed.
The history of esophageal surgery in Japan can be divided into three periods, an era of safety from 1930 to 1980, an era of radicality from 1980 to 2000, and the era of quality of life (QOL) from 2000 to the present. The treatment for T4 cancers of the thoracic esophagus has also changed over time from preoperative radiotherapy, combined resection of the neighboring organs with esophagectomy, and to definitive chemoradiotherapy (dCRT) with salvage surgery. At present, almost all patients with an unresectable T4 esophageal cancer receives dCRT. However, there are many patients with a residual or recurrent tumor after dCRT. Salvage surgery for such patients often results in incomplete resection of the tumor because the tumor involves the trachea and/or aorta. New techniques to enable the resection of such neighboring organs even during salvage surgery are needed. In the future, the mainstay of treatment for esophageal cancer will be CRT with the foreseeable progress in new drugs and new techniques of radiotherapy. Surgery will be indicated for a local failure after CRT, while combined resection of the neighboring organs will be necessary to treat a local failure after CRT for T4 cancers. New surgical techniques have to be developed through some application of new devices and equipment.
Objective: There are still controversies about the surgical benefits for elderly lung cancer.The aims of this study were to assess impacts of aging for non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC) following pulmonary resection.Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken for patients operated at a curative intent from January 1998 to October 2008. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 consisted of patients aged at least 75 years old, and group 2 were patients less than 75 years old. Perioperative characteristics and details, hospital courses, surgery-related morbidities, surgical mortality, and survival were compared between groups.Results: Of 442 eligible patients, 73 patients (16.5%) were in group 1 (mean age 78.3years) and 369 (83.5%) patients were in group 2 (mean age 62.5 years). The following data were compared with statistical significance: hospital stay (17.8 vs. 8.9 days), mortality rate (8.2 vs. 2.2%), morbidity rate (26.0 vs. 13.3%), and length in intensive care unit (5.7vs. 3.2 days). The main causes for morbidities in group 1 showed cardiopulmonary-related. Tumor stage without considering age had statistically significant influence on survival. Survivals of two groups were comparative. (p= 0.10) Intriguingly, the disease-related survival (28.3 months; p= 0.008) and progression-free survival (25.0 months; p<0.001) in group 1 were significantly better than group 2 (20.2 and 12.2 months).Conclusions: Although operation for NSCLC in the elderly patients causes more complications, especially in the cardiopulmonary system, their outcome showed better than their younger counterparts. Pulmonary resection for elderly patients may get longer disease control. Elderly patients with physical fit for surgery should not be considered as a contraindication to pulmonary resection based on age alone.
Bronchopleural fistulas associated with empyema can occur as life-threatening sequelae after pulmonary resection, occurring most frequently after pneumonectomy. Three bronchopleural fistulas, 5-6 mm in diameter, were successfully treated using a fibrin glue-coated collagen patch (FGCCP) and fibrin glue (FG) at the site of a bronchopleural fistula. Through the clinical experiences, we introduce the methodology to perform the endobronchial closure of bronchopleural fistulas.Data were collected by reviewing the clinical charts of patients diagnosed with post-lobectomy bronchopleural fistula at Sapporo Minami-Sanjo Hospital from June 2004 to December 2010. Bronchopleural fistula was diagnosed by means of endoscopic visualization. Three cases of post-lobectomy and one case of post-pneumonectomy bronchopleural fistula were collected.A FGCCP fragment was packed within the fistula, and the fragment grasped with the forceps was kept in this position for approximately a minute, a time during which a FGCCP becomes adhesive, and the patch fragment was released. After releasing the patch fragment, the FG was applied directly on the FGCCP using a two-channel catheter.There have been few reports of the bronchoscopic closure of bronchopleural fistulas using a FGCCP and FG. Closure of small bronchopleural fistulas with the application of a FGCCP and FG may offer a valuable therapeutic alternative.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine changes in severity of secondary tricuspid regurgitation (TR) accompanying mitral valve disease, and to identify factors predicting failure of improvement in TR after mitral valve surgery.Methods: We studied 99 patients who had TR of grade ≥2+ preoperatively, 47 with tricuspid annuloplasty (TAP Group) performed concurrently, and 52 with mitral surgery alone (nTAP Group). Predictors of failure of improvement in TR in the nTAP Group were analyzed. Results: The mean follow-up period was 4.6 ± 2.7 years. There was a signifi cant difference between the TAP and nTAP Groups in TR improvement (93.6% vs. 67.3% respectively, p <0.001) and in change of TR grade (−2.1 ± 1.0 vs. −0.9 ± 1.0 respectively, p <0.001). Univariate analysis in the nTAP Group identified rheumatic etiology, atrial fibrillation, mitral stenosis (MS), and large left atrium prior to surgery as risk factors for failure of improvement. In multivariate analysis atrial fibrillation was identified as a predictor of failure of improvement (p = 0.004). Conclusion: Our results suggest that TAP should be performed concurrently with mitral valve surgery in patients with secondary TR of grade ≥2+, especially those having atrial fibrillation, even if TR is not severe.
Purpose: Short term results of on-pump and off-pump techniques in patients undergoing reoperative coronary artery bypass grafting (redo CABG) were investigated in this study. Methods: A total of 14.430 patients have undergone isolated coronary artery bypass grafting in our clinic from 1998 to 2010. Of these patients, 105 patients who have undergone redo CABG, 53 (50.5%) were operated with cardiopulmonary bypass (on-pump) and 52 (49.5%) without cardiopulmonary bypass (off-pump). Early results for which on or off-pump techniques were independent risk factors were determined with logistic regression analysis. Results: Overall mortality in patients undergoing redo CABG was 12.3% with a 11.5% mortality in the off-pump group and 13.2% mortality in the on-pump group and the difference was not statistically significant (p >0.05). Blood product transfusion requirement (p <0.05, OR: 3.620, 95% CI: 1.295-10.119), new onset atrial fibrillation rhythm (AFR) (p <0.05, OR: 13.357, 95% CI: 1.656-107.721), prolonged ventilation (p <0.05, OR: 9.066, 95% CI: 1.091-75.323) and duration of hospitalization (p <0.01, OR: 5.252, 95% CI: 1.784-15.459) were significantly higher in the on-pump group. The number of patients with postoperative low cardiac output was significantly higher in the off-pump group (p <0.05, OR: 5.337, 95% CI: 1.094-26.043). The ratio of complete bypass was significantly higher in the on-pump group compared to the off-pump group (p <0.05, OR: 2.913, 95% CI: 1.204-7.046). Conclusion: Despite the lower morbidity and mortality in the off-pump group, the rate of target vessel bypass grafting was lower. Off-pump technique may be considered as a safer option for cardiopulmonary bypass in the high risk population.
Purpose: Recently, coronary atrial bypass grafting (CABG) for dialysis patients increase, but the mortality is still high. Additionally, many patients show major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) after discharge and long-term results are not satisfactory. Methods: Ninety patients underwent CABG for dialysis patients. Logistic regression analysis was conducted using preoperative and intraoperative factors in relation to the early death and MACCE. Results: The operative mortality rate was 8.9% (isolated CABG: 6.9%, concomitant surgery: 16.7%). All death patients having isolated CABG were emergent cases. The postoperative survival rate was 81.5 ± 18.5% at 1 year, 72.0 ± 28.0% at 5 years and 68.4 ± 31.6% at 8 years. The postoperative MACCE-free rate was 70.3 ± 29.7% at 1 year, 61.8 ± 38.2% at 5 years, and 58.6 ± 41.4% at 8 years. We identifi ed acute myocardial infarction, age ≥75 years, preoperative intra aortic balloon pumping assist (IABP), concomitant surgery, and non-use carperitide as risk factors for early death and ejection fraction <40%, preoperative IABP assist, and non-use of carperitide as risk factors for postoperative MACCE. Conclusions: The present study suggested that surgical outcome of CABG in dialysis patients was not satisfactory. Especially, patients with preoperative left ventricular dysfunction, IABP assist, and concomitant surgery were resulted in poor outcome. It is suggested that dialysis patients need not only surgery but also multidisciplinary therapy.
Purpose: We have developed a technique to elongate the radial artery (RA) with the distal segment of the left internal thoracic artery. This study investigated the safety and durability of this extended conduit compared with the composite Y-grafts.Methods: From January 1998 through December 2010, 750 patients underwent complete arterial revascularization with the use of the left internal thoracic artery (LITA) and RA. Out of these patients, 362 patients were operated on with the use of either RA-LITA extension conduit (n = 103), or a composite LITA-RA Y-graft (n = 259) and were included in this study. Cox regression analyses and Kaplan-Meyer survival curves were used to identify the predictive value of the RA-LITA extension technique on both survival and incidence of re-intervention.Results: Cox regression analysis showed that the use of RA-LITA extension conduit was not a significant predictor of re-intervention (p = 0.600) or total survival (p = 0.930).Kaplan-meier curves showed no significant difference between the two groups concerning total survival and re-intervention-free survival (p = 0.600).Conclusions: Our alternative technique of extending the RA with the distal segment of the LITA is a safe alternative for patients undergoing total arterial revascularization. The long-term survival and incidence of re-intervention is comparable with the composite LITA-RA Y-grafts.
Background: Sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) is an independent risk factor for hypertension which is a major risk factor for acute aortic dissection. The purposes of this study were to assess the prevalence of SAS in patients with acute aortic dissection, delineate the characteristics of patients who have acute aortic dissection with SAS.Methods: Of 95 consecutive patients with acute aortic dissection, 13 had episodes of sleep apnea and nocturnal hypoxemia. A portable sleep monitoring system was used to assess sleep status in the 13 patients.Results: The SAS-positive group consisted of 12 patients (12.6%), 8 with type A dissection and 4 with type B dissection. Age was significantly lower in the SASpositive group (47.2 ± 8.5 years) than in the SAS-negative group (64.9 ± 10.3 years)(p <0.001). The male:female ratio was significantly higher in the SAS-positive group than in the SAS-negative group (p <0.001). The body mass index was significantly greater in the SAS-positive group than in the SAS-negative group (p <0.001). All12 patients in the SAS-positive group had hypertension.Conclusions: Patients who have acute aortic dissection with SAS are characterized by being tall, fat, and relatively young men with hypertension. Sleep apnea syndrome may be a risk factor for acute aortic dissection in middle-aged men.
Purpose: To study mid-term outcomes in patients admitted to receive treatment for acute type B aortic dissection. Methods: The study group comprised 229 patients with acute type B aortic dissection treated between January 2000 and July 2010. 128 patients had a thrombosed false lumen, and 101 had a patent false lumen. Results: In the thrombosed group, 6 had rupture, 4 had malperfusion, and 118 had no complications. There were 5 early deaths (3.9%). In the patent group, 12 had rupture, 19 had malperfusion, and 70 had no complications. There were 6 early deaths (5.9%). Overall survival rates in the thrombosed group and the patent group were 94.7 ± 2.2% and 90.2 ± 3.2% at 1 year, and 84.3 ± 4.6% and 85.9 ± 4.3% at 5 years (p = 0.892), respectively. Aorta-related event-free rates were 85.6 ± 3.4% and 48.3 ± 5.5% at 1 year, and 76.0 ± 5.1% and 35.2 ± 7.2% at 5 years (p <0.001), respectively. Conclusions: The incidences of rupture and malperfusion during the acute phase were higher in the patent group compared with the thrombosed group. At the late period, although the aorta-related event rate was higher in the patent group, the survival rate did not differ between two groups. Close follow-up and aggressive intervention strategy of the patent group may result comparable outcomes with the thrombosed group.
Purpose: Intimal thickening, which results from the response to arterial damage caused by therapeutic interventions or other reasons, is usually called as neointima. Neointimal hyperplasia is a main step in the pathogenesis of late-term restenosis, which is developed after vascular interventions. Reduction in nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling plays a substantial role in the pathogenesis of neointima formation. Phosphodiesterase V is detected in the peripheral coronary and pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells and in the cardiac tissue. Based on the effects of phosphodiesterase V inhibitors on vascular smooth muscle cells, in the present study, the effect of tadalafi l, a new member of phosphodiesterase V inhibitors, on neointimal hyperplasia was investigated in the rabbit carotid artery anastomosis model. Material and method: Fourteen male New Zealand white rabbits weighing between 2.5-3 kg, were used. The rabbits were randomly divided into two equal groups; tadalafi l group received oral tadalafil (2 mg/kg/day), and PBS group received sterile PBS solution (normal saline; 2 mg/kg/day) for 28 days after the surgery. The right carotid arteries of all rabbits were anastomosed in an end-to-end fashion using 8/0 polypropylene suture. The rabbits were sacrificed at the end of the postoperative period of 28 days. After sacrifi cing, fi rstly anastomosis segment on the right carotid artery and secondly a part of the left carotid artery (as control) of each rabbit were removed. Morphometric examination of tissue sections was performed under a light microscope connected to an image capture system. Results: There was a significant difference between the right and left carotid arteries in terms of intimal area and intima/media ratio both in tadalafi l and PBS groups (p <0.001 for each). Intimal area and intima/media ratio were increased in the right carotid arteries compared to the left carotid arteries (p <0.001 for each). Besides, when the right carotid arteries of both groups were compared using covariance analysis, it was observed that intimal area and intima/media ratio in the anastomosis site were signifi cantly reduced with tadalafil treatment (p <0.001). Conclusion: The present study was promising in terms of tadalafil use as a new agent for the prevention of neointimal hyperplasia, which is the leading cause of late-term graft failure in vascular surgery.
We present the case of a 51 years old female who experienced foreign body aspiration3 years before. The foreign body, which should be removed by bronchoscopy before, was lodged at the bifurcation of the right inferior bronchus and could only be removed via right lower lobectomy. The patient experienced a swift recovery and was well at follow-up 8 months later.
We performed robotic bronchoplastic upper lobectomy for squamous cell carcinoma of the right hilum of the lung. The patient was a 56-year-old male and surgery was performed using 3 robotic arms and 1 assistance. Deeply wide wedge resection and interrupted suture were applied to the bronchus of the upper lobe. The pathological stage was pT1bN1M0, IIA. Chest drain tube was removed on postoperative day 2 and no postoperative respiratory complication occurred. The key for success of this procedure is accustoming to robotic manipulation, especially suturing technique because of the absence of a tactile sense.
Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, a rare malignant tumor, was predominantly occurring in the bone and may involve somatic soft tissue but it is extremely rare in the lung.We report the case of a 20-year-old female who presented with a 2-month history of irritant nonproductive cough and chest pain. The histopathologic examination revealed the tumor composed of atypical undifferentiated small cells and islands of matured chondroid matrix typically presented as bimorphic appearances. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the tumor cells were positive for vimentin and CD99 for all components, and to S-100 limited to the areas of cartilage. In addition, previously reported cases of primary lung mesenchymal chondrosarcoma were reviewed, and the relevant clinical knowledge regarding its clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment were discussed.
We present the case of a 56-year-old woman with an anterior mediastinal tumor who has past history of myasthenia gravis and invasive thymoma. Furthermore, she had superior vena cava syndrome that was caused by a rapidly growing tumor. A biopsy proved diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. After 8 courses of chemotherapy, remission of the lymphoma was achieved. Because a second primary malignancy, including lymphoma, can occur in patients with thymoma, a biopsy is necessary for tumors located in the anterior mediastinum, particularly in patients with a history of treatment for thymoma, to distinguish between recurrence and a second primary malignancy.
Alveolar adenoma, a rare benign pulmonary neoplasm, usually presents as asymptomatic. Since first described in 1986, no more than 35 cases have been reported in the English medical literature. Here we report a case of 48-year-old woman who suffered from this tumor, the patient is doing well 4 years after thoracoscopic lobectomy.