Purpose: In this article, we reported on the up-to-date literature regarding skeletonized bilateral internal mammary artery (BIMA) flow and the effect on sternal perfusion. We also reviewed the pros and cons of the skeletonization technique versus the conventional pedicle technique for harvesting the BIMA.
Methods: We performed an up-to-date review using the PubMed database, with a specific focus on the contemporary published literature.
Results: BIMA skeletonization can preserve the sternal microcirculation, minimize tissue damage, and maintain blood supply to the chest wall at the tissue level. This effect is also apparent in diabetics. Deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) rates are significantly less with skeletonization versus the conventional pedicle technique and are comparable to single internal mammary artery harvesting.
Conclusions: Contemporary large-scale studies demonstrate that skeletonization of the BIMA increases conduit length, provides superior flow, reduces the incidence of DSWIs, and improves late survival. Hopefully, this review will increase awareness of the compelling evidence in favor of using skeletonized internal mammary arteries and stimulate increased uptake of BIMA revascularization surgery.
Purpose: Whether to proceed left subclavian artery (LSA) revascularization in patients with LSA coverage due to insufficient proximal landing zone (PLZ) during thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) remains controversial.Methods: A total of 903 patients who received TEVAR were retrospectively analyzed. LSA could be covered if the PLZ was less than 15 mm accompanied with 1) a dominant or balanced right vertebral artery, 2) a complete circle of Willis, and 3) a left vertebral artery with a diameter ≥3 mm and without severe stenosis.Results: LSA selective coverage was necessary for 35.0% (316/903) of the patients to extend the PLZ. Patients presented with weakness, pain, cooling and discoloration of the left upper extremity (LUE), and pulselessness of the left brachial artery were more in the LSA-covered group. The ischemia of LUE occurred more often in patients with LSA covered completely than in those with LSA covered partially. Functional arm status showed no significant difference in the arm, shoulder, and hand questionnaire scores at 12 months postoperative between the LSA-covered group and LSA-uncovered group, or between the LSA-covered completely group and LSA-covered partially group.Conclusion: It was safe to cover the LSA origin without revascularization if the PLZ was less than 15 mm accompanied with careful evaluation (description in method).
Purpose: We compared the composite outcome of tricuspid valve (TV) reintervention or heart failure (HF) admission in patients who underwent tricuspid valve replacement (TVR) with tissue vs. mechanical valves.
Patients and Methods: The study included 159 patients who underwent TVR from 2009 to 2019. We grouped the patients according to the valve’s type into tissue valve group (n = 139) and mechanical valve group (n = 20).
Results: The mean age of patients was 52.4 ± 12.8 years, and 117 patients were females (73.6%). Hospital mortality occurred in 20 patients (12.6%); all of them were in the tissue valve group. The composite outcome of reintervention and HF readmission occurred in 8 patients with mechanical valves (40%) vs. 24 patients with tissue valves (17.3%), (P = 0.018). Predictors of reintervention and HF admission were female (subdistributional hazard ratio [SHR]: 1.38–34.3, P = 0.019), stroke (SHR: 1.25–8.76, P = 0.016), hypertension (SHR: 1.13–5.36, P = 0.024), and mechanical valves (SHR: 1.6–10.7, P = 0.003). In post hoc analysis, the difference in the composite outcome was derived from the difference in the reintervention rate that was higher in mechanical valves. Survival did not differ significantly between groups (P = 0.12).
Conclusion: Mechanical TVs have a higher rate of composite outcome of reintervention or HF readmission than tissue TVs that are related mainly to higher rate of reintervention.
Purpose: When added to the internal thoracic artery (ITA), the right gastroepiploic artery (GEA) has been used as an in-situ graft or an I-composite right ITA–right GEA graft in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We aimed to verify its potential.
Methods: We evaluated 104 patients who underwent first isolated CABG with this I-composite graft. The number of distal anastomoses, graft flow (GF) and pulsatility index (PI) during surgery, and graft patency in the early term regarding this I-composite graft were evaluated.
Results: The number of total distal anastomoses and distal anastomoses with arterial grafts were 4.17 ± 0.81 and 3.63 ± 0.81, respectively. This I-composite graft achieved 2.38 ± 0.69 distal anastomoses. GF tended to increase according to the increased number of distal anastomoses (p = 0.241), and the PI maintained a low score regardless of the number of distal anastomoses (p = 0.834). Graft patency was 95.5%; moreover, the number of distal anastomoses with this I-composite graft did not affect early-term graft patency.
Conclusion: Right GEA utility was expanded as this I-composite graft in addition to in-situ graft. This I-composite graft has an adequate flow capacity for revascularization in non-left anterior descending coronary artery lesions.
We report the use of the guidewire lasso technique for the removal of an embedded esophageal self-expanding metal stent (SEMS), following a failure of distal to proximal invagination by removal hook caused by stent incorporation. During a removal procedure of an embedded SEMS using the hook retrieval device, the strut fractured and the stent retained. Attempts to pull up the retained stent using hook were not effective. Thus, the lasso technique with a guidewire over the retained stent was performed and successfully removed with no procedure-related complications. The patient is alive without dysphagia after 3 months follow-up.
The advantages of salvage esophagectomy through robotic-assisted surgery for patients with clinically diagnosed tumor invasion of adjacent vital organs (cT4b) or patients with scar tissue from definitive chemoradiotherapy (dCRT) are still only rarely reported. A man in his 60s with middle thoracic esophageal cancer (cT4b [left main bronchus] N1 M0 cStage IIIC) received dCRT (60 Gy). After the chemoradiotherapy, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a residual primary tumor, and we performed robotic-assisted thoracoscopic subtotal esophagectomy and gastric tube reconstruction via a retrosternal route with three-field lymphadenectomy. Although it was difficult to dissect the tumor from adjacent organs, especially the left main bronchus and left inferior pulmonary vein, due to loss of the dissecting layer and scarring, R0 surgery was achieved. With robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, the high-magnification, high-resolution, and three-dimensional images; the stable surgical field with full countertraction made with the robotic arm forceps, which were readily adjusted; and the stable motion of the robotic arm without physiological tremor are considerable advantages for salvage esophagectomy for cT4b tumors. It goes without saying that sufficient experience with robot-assisted surgery and sufficient understanding and surgical skill in esophageal cancer surgery under suitable surgical indications and timing are required to make use of these advantages.
Cholesterol granulomas of the thymus are extremely rare benign entities. Herein, we describe a case of cholesterol granuloma in a 45-year-old man who presented with multifocal anterior mediastinal lesions on computed tomography (CT). Positron emission tomography (PET)–CT revealed increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake, with a maximum standardized uptake value of 8.3. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed extreme hypointensity. He underwent total thymectomy by median sternotomy for presumed multiple thymoma. On histopathological analysis, cholesterol granuloma of the thymus was confirmed, and the patient had an uneventful postoperative course without recurrence for 28 months. Cholesterol granuloma of the thymus is a PET–CT-positive benign tumor with unique histological findings. The MRI findings were indicative of hypocellularity associated with a benign entity, whereas the PET–CT findings corresponded to granulomatous inflammation. Therefore, concurrent use of PET–CT and MRI can be helpful in distinguishing between benign cholesterol granulomas and malignant anterior mediastinal tumors.