The usage of millet flour in cooking is often limited since they cannot sustain the gluten network required for imparting structure to doughs and crumbs. In this study, we have examined the suitability of millet flour for its potential usage in tempura batter. Our analysis compared millet flour obtained from barley, whole buckwheat, and job's-tears with cereal flours (wheat, non-glutinous rice, and glutinous rice).
Frying led to a decrease in the odour indices of various millet samples, as compared to raw millet batter. Therefore, frying could help in ensuring that the characteristic odour of millet flour is replaced by a more palatable aroma. In addition, the relationship between oil absorption and water evaporation was distinct in each type of grain flour. The whole buckwheat sample, grayish brown in colour, had low palatability in tempura. However, this aspect was suggested to be improved by the use of white endosperm flour. On the other hand, the job's-tears sample had low palatability with respect to factors except colour with characteristics like the non-glutinous rice sample. The benefits of job's-tears flour could be incorporated by mixing it with wheat flour. The barley sample was highly suitable as tempura batter due to its wheat-like properties and high palatability.
The aim of this study was to determine the physical properties and structural characteristics of wheat noodles after various storage periods. The samples were evaluated after 0, 6, 12, and 24 months of storage. X-ray computed tomography images of sections from dried noodle samples that had been stored for 12 and 24 months showed surfaces with large interstitial structures and high absorption coefficients. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that as the storage period increased, the enthalpy per 1 mg of dried noodle sample tended to increase, and the first and second endothermic peaks shifted toward lower and higher temperatures, respectively. Such changes would be expected to retard starch gelatinization and protein denaturation.
The effects of viewing a demonstration video on university students' acquiring the skill of using a kitchen knife were examined. The changes in their awareness and actual behaviour before and after viewing were compared. The video presented explicit instructions for twelve items in the following three categories: 1) physical posture (5 items), 2) handling of a kitchen knife (4 items), and 3) how to slice the material (3 items).
The analysis of the data shows viewing the video had a positive effect on the subjects' awareness of the instructional items, and repeated viewing helped them retain those items. Although behavioural acquisition as a result of viewing was not observed, it was suggested that the items on physical posture were more liable to improve or improved faster, compared to those on handling of a kitchen knife and how to slice the material.
In terms of the relationship between subjects' awareness and actual behaviour, two types of discrepancies were confirmed: the ‘awareness > behaviour type' and ‘awareness < behaviour type'. In the former type, they were well aware of the instructional items, but behaviour was not accompanied as much. In the latter, they properly behaved according to the instructional items although they did not pay special attention to the items. The number of the items of the former type was large while that of the latter type was small.
The aim of this study was to characterise a method for preparing hamburger patties that do not contain any major allergens, namely those from eggs, breadcrumbs, and milk. To this end, hen eggs were substituted by two types of grated yam called "nagaimo" and "yamatoimo". In addition, breadcrumbs including wheat flour and cow's milk were replaced with tofu and okara. When all three allergen-containing ingredients were substituted by any one non-allergenic ingredient, the cooked ground meat fell apart or became harder compared to the standard sample. In case of hamburger patties where two non-allergenic ingredients were used, the patty retained its shape after cooking. Importantly, the hardness of cooked hamburger patties could be modulated to a desired degree by controlling the moisture content of the tofu. However, the hardness of patties was difficult to regulate with okara. Sensory tests on university students suggested that samples incorporating nagaimo and tofu drained for 30 minutes tasted similar to the standard hamburger patty.