The object of this paper is to establish location characteristics of existing isolated forests in
Sanda City, Hyogo Prefecture. For this purpose, a map survey using geographical maps and landownership maps was conducted on all isolated forests in Sanda city.
The results of this survey are follows;
1) Isolated forests are located on two types of geographical features. One is on a river terrace,
plateau or hillsid ea,nd most of these forests are large in scale. The others are on various other
geographical features, and most of those forests are small.
2) Both the hillside-typ eforests located on a hillside, which form the green frame of this region,
and the other-type forests as we called them, which are not located near shrines, tombs, ruins,
ponds or rivers, are considered to be highly likel yto disappear in the future.
3) Especially, the private other-type forests located on the boundary between human
settlements and farmland, are considered most likely to disappear.
So the politica lpreservation of these two types' isolated forests (i.e., hillside-type and the othertype) is of urgent importance.
A lucidophyllous forest on Mt. Kurino-dake, Kagoshima Prefecture was studied in order to
clarify distributio nof the component species and species richness along the altitudina lgradient.
We investigated 35 plots of 100m from 640m to 970m above sea level. As a result, we
recognized nine species groups by the similarit yof each distributiona lpattern of frequency(%) of
occurrence and mean coverage(%) of each species along the altitudinal gradient. Altitudinal
distribution of species group 1 was restricted to 650m-700m. Species group 1 was divided into
two sub-groups, the gap species such as Mallotus japonicus, Zanthoxylum ailanthoides, Aralia
eleta, Clerodendron trichotomum etc. and the lucidophyllous species such as Gardneria nutans,
Viburnum awabuki, Damnacanthus macrophyllus, Anodendron affine etc. preferring a warmer
climate. It seemed that a change of vegetation from Castnopsis type forest to Cyclobalanopsis
type forest occurred at this elevation. Species richness (number of species) per 100m2 ranged from 83 to 15 and decreased abruptly from low to high altitudes. High species richness at lower
altitude depended on the appearance of many epiphytic orchids and ferns on the tree trunks.
Mammals inhabiting Hyogo prefecture can be estimated to consist of seven orders, 17 families
and about 40 species. Except for Logomorpha and Artiodactyla, the remaining five orders
among them include species which need some protection and they total about 55 % of all species
excluding extinct, introduced and feral species. Ecological information in Hyogo prefecture has
been accumulated in few protection-required species: there is no recent information of spatial
distribution on Oriental water-shrew, Japanese noctule-bat and Japanese dor-mouse; and little
information on Japanese shrew, Japanese horse-shoe bat, Japanese large-footed bat, Schreiber's
bent-winged bat ,Japanese tube-nosed bat ,common parti-colore dbat ,Japanese squirrel ,Japanese
small flying-squirre lJ,apanese giant flying-squirre lS,mith's vole, harvest mouse and Japanese
badger. Damage and population management is also necessary in sika deer and Japanese wild
boar, in order to reduce their crop-damaging, and comprehensive management in Japanese black
bear, an endangered local population, in order to prevent human-bear fatal accident. Habitat
alteration due to human activities, however, has affected the population sizes and spatial
distribution of all these protection-required and pest mammals in Hyogo. Habitat management
has priority over damage or population management in the process of promoting wildlife
management. The precondition for the promotion is :(1) enrichment and enlargement of related
administrative function ,(2) fundamental and applied scientifi cstudies ,and (3) understanding of
ecology and wildlife-management sciences and support of the promotion by citizens.
The Takatsukayama Member of the Meimi Formation is distributed at the western foothill sof
the Rokko Mountains, western Japan, and has been known as a Middle Pleistocene deposit
intercalating a marine clay bed. Calcareous nannofossil assemblages in marine clay sediments
were analyzed to clarif ythe biostratigraphi cage of the marine clay bed. The assemblages were
dominated by Gephyrocapsa caribbeanica and G. oceanica together with the small type of
Gephyrocapsa spp., while Pseudoemiliania lacunosa (the last appearance datum of 0.41 Ma) and
Emiliania huxleyi (the first appearance datum of 0.25 Ma) were absent in all sediment samples.
This result is consistent with our previous inference that the marine bed of the Takatsukayama
Member was deposited during the period corresponding to the oxygen isotope stage 11 as
derived from the eruption age (ca. 0.4 Ma) of the Takatsukayama volcanic ash layer.
Local areas with abundant nature are facing a crisis ,the collapse of regions due to a decline in
population. This study clarifie schanges in regional policy and the vision of each mayor in the
Tajima region, included in dweller type with abundant nature, and in which regional vision is
developing according to the intention of each town.
Consequently, it is clear that is a issue for the region to create and expand the manpower of
the region, to maintain the infrastructure, to make welfare complete, and to promote regional
industry. And it's important that then 50 years or 100 years after, natural environment will be
conserved, and regional identity will born from natural environment, and one region will
exchange with other regions using their own identity.
Aboveground biomass and stand density of rural forests in Hyogo Prefecture were calculated
from tree census data that were obtained the Satoyama Management Project in Hyogo
Prefecture etc. The number of data was 91 in 26 areas. Aboveground biomass of rural forests
was 162.5t/ha (all type forests), 136.4t/ha (Pinus densiflora forest), and 179.5t/ha (Quercus
serrata forest). Stand density was 14,534 trees/ha (all type forests), 16,695 trees /ha (Pinus
densiflora forest), and 12,049 trees /ha (Quercus serrata forest). The relationships between
aboveground biomass, stand density and number of species were discussed.