A primeval lucidophyllous forest surrounded by large secondary lucidophyllous and artificial
coniferous forests is distributed in the region of the upper Ayaminami River in Miyazaki
Prefecture of southwestern Japan. This area is excellent for studying the differences in species
composition and species richness between primeval forest and secondary/artificial forests.
Sixteen species groups (differentia lspecies) were recognized on the basis of phytosociological
fidelity degree of 5. The primeval lucidophyllous forest was characterized by the presence of
Buibophyilum drymoglossum, Chloranthus spicatus, Selaginella involvens, Eria reptans,
Asplenium wilfordii and other species, and by the absence of Symplocos lucida, Symplocos
prunifolia, Neolitsea sericea and other species that are the main elements of secondary
lucidophyllous forest .The secondary lucidophyllous forest was differentiate dby the presence of
Mallotus japonicus, Zanthoxylum ailanthoides, Rhus succedanea, and Styrax japonica, which
were summergreen trees. The artifici aClryptomeria japonica and artifici aPlinus forests were
characterized by the dominance of Cryptomeria japonica and Pinus spp., respectively. The mean
number of total species and the mean number of lucidophyllous elements per stand in the four
forests, which were indicative of the species richness, ranged from 62.6 and 46.6 to 60.4 and 33.8, respectively. The species richness of the secondary/artificial forests was 56-68% that of the
primeval forest. Ferns and orchids play an important role in the species richness of primeval
forest. It appeared that the secondary/artificial forests did not posses the capacity to well
maintain the species richness of lucidophyllous elements
On the basis of the magnetic susceptibilit yof the late Cretaceous to early Paleogene igneous
rocks in the eastern Chugoku to western Kinki area, the zonal distribution of igneous activities
has been reviewed and some data have been applied to a historica land archeologica lstudy. The
San-in belt is generally recognized to be mainly composed of magnetite-series plutonic rocks.
On the contrary, ilmenite-serie splutonic rocks with low magnetic susceptibilit yare extensively
distributed in the belt of the study area. This observation suggests that the Cretaceous ilmeniteseries plutonism took place all over the innerzone of Southwest Japan. On the other hand, granodioriti cmasses with high magnetic susceptibilit yare distribute din the northern part of the San-yo belt composed generally of ilmenite-serie splutonic rocks. Magnetite content in igneous rocks may have affected regional industry and culture. Iron sands used for ancient iron manufacture (so-called Tatara) have been collected from magnetiteseries plutonic rocks in the San-in belt, while ilmenite-series plutonic and volcanic rocks in the San-yo belt have been quarried for buildings, ornaments, monuments, tombstones, coffins and others. Magnetic susceptibility measurements are useful to estimate the source areas for such processed stones.
As forests become fragmented, edge effects become more prevalent and the stable
environments of forest interiors diminish in size. We compared the extent of edge effects on the
vegetation structure among primary, secondary and urban shrine/temple forests in southeastern
Hyogo Prefecture. In the primary forest at Taisanji Temple, there was a clear difference in
vegetation structure between the edge and interior .Deciduous trees were found near the edge,
whereas Castanopsis cuspidata (Thunb.) Schottky dominated the canopy of the interior .In the
secondary forest, also at Taisanji Temple, various tree species dominated the canopy, and the
difference in vegetation structure between edge and interior was less clear. Edge effects on the
vegetation penetrated twice as far into the interior of the secondary forest (30m) as in the
primary forest (15m). In the urban forest at Nishinomiya Shrine, edge effects dominated, and nonforest species such as Pseudosasa japonica Makino and Trachycarpus excelsa Wendl. were
found throughout the research plot. Our results indicated that the vegetation structure and
surrounding environment should be taken into account when determining suitable conservation
areas for fragmented forests .In urban areas, human intervention such as removal of non-forest
species is necessary to restore natural forest conditions.
On 15 Mag 2004, we found a carcass of cuckoo species, probably depredated, in a forest on Mt.
Rokko. We also found a fresh egg with the carcass. The cuckoo was identified as the Oriental
Cuckoo Cuculus saturatus by the body size, color pattern of the tail feathers, and characteristic
color pattern of the wing-edge. The egg was also identifie das that of the Oriental Cuckoo by its
size and shape. Although we did not find a nest parasitized by the Oriental Cuckoo, these facts
strongly suggest that the Oriental Cuckoo breeds in the forests of Mt. Rokko, where it has been
considered not to breed.
We studied populations of R. pseudoacacia to ascertain its degree of adaptation to riparian
environments and the manner by which its distribution quantity has increased in the past 19
years on the sandbanks of the Inagawa River, Hyogo Prefecture in western Japan. In a field
survey at the Inagawa River, we investigated the height and the diameter at breast height (DBH)
of R. pseudoacacia, and determined the species composition of the R. pseudoacacia community.
Further, we investigated the past and present distribution of R. pseudoacacia using aerial
photographs from 1985 to 2003. There were approximately 700 individual trees in the study area. Their average height and average DBH was 6.1 m and 8.8 cm, respectively. The average number of species per 100 m in the R. pseudoacacia community was 27. The species composition of the community included a few weeds common to riparian environment as well as garden tree species. The distribution area had increased from 0 m to 6110 m in 19 years.
These results suggest that R. pseudoacacia can adapt to the riparian environments as is
evident from it srapid expansion in distributio nalong the Inagawa River in the past 19 years.
Of the 1818 specimens collected at Nishiharima, Hyogo Prefecture, 207 species, three subspecies,
and six varieties of 125 genera in 41 families of Bryopsida, 94 species, seven subspecies, and one
variety of 45 genera in 28 families of Hepaticopsida, and two species of two genera in two
families of Anthocerotopsida were enumerated.