A phylosociological study on the lucidophyllous forests in Japan was made on the following standpoints.
1 The lucidophyllous forests throughout Japan were composed of 1063 species (incl. subspecies and varieties).
2 I riomotejima Island, Okinawajima Island, Amamioshima Island, Yakushima Islands and southern Kyushu were recognized the distribution center of the component species.
3 The component species were classified into eight groups of the geographical distribution.
4 The distributional responses of the component species along the environmental gradients were examined based on the direct gradient analysis.
5 The correlation between number of component species and area of islands in the Nansei Ialands was related by a highly significant linear regression.
6 The geographical distribution of the component species was studied from the viewpoint of the
refuge during the maximum stage of the last glacial and the migration from the refugia during the
7 The number of component species of fragmented lucidophyllous forests preserved in the precincts of shrines and temples had a high positive correlation with the area.
As a result, it was ascertained that the class Camellietea japonicae included the following three orders, seven alliances and twenty five associations which were recognized natural vegetation.
We surveyedo ccurrencea nd abundance of the ghost crabs (genus Ocypode) on six sandy beaches in Shinonsen-choH, yogoP refecturew, estern Honshu,J apan. The burrows of ghost crabs appeared in early May after overwintering, and occurred at almost everyday since June when the temperatures on and in the sand constantly exceeded 20.0 °C. The burrow density was different among beaches and annually changed even the same beach. Multiple regression analysis revealed the effects of beach length and sand hardness on the burrow density. The abundance of the ghost crabs was relatively high at sandy beaches with short length. We also found a small beach of high burrow density in the bay area. The results indicate that most ghost crabs inhabited at stable sandy beaches less affected by coastal erosion. Moreover, the abundance was extremely low at sandy beaches with high value of sand hardness, which was presumably caused by anthropic impact in coastala reas.
Sedimentary-originated lineament referable to ancient ripple mark and designated as a
prefectural natural monument is preserved in the base of the Miocene gravel bed of the Toyooka
Formation assignable to the Hokudan Group in Shimonohama, Kamicho, Hyogo Prefecture. Facies
associations show that most of the Miocene deposits in the Shimonohama area are thought to be fluvial, flood plane, debris flow, and volcaniclastic flow in their origin. Based on shape analysis, the lineament is interpreted to be referable to the gutter cast, a kind of flute cast formed under the bottom of channel of gravelly river, not to the ripple mark resulted from a wave movement as assumed previously.
Distribution and sizes of breeding colonies and roosts of the Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in Hyogo Prefecture were surveyed from 2008 to 2009. A total of 5 colonies and 16 roosts were confirmed to exist in the prefecture. Breeding season was between December and July. The local population size which was calculated by summing up individual numbers of cormorants in all roosts and/or colonies within the prefecture was from 2,000 to 4,500 in non-breeding season, from 3,000 to 3,500 in breeding season. As cormorants started to be recorded regularly in winter at the start of 1990's after a period of only irregular and small number of records, we can conclude that a local population of the Great Cormorant was established during the last 20 years in Hyogo Prefecture.
In the New SUBARU facility, we have made a comprehensive investigation on the energy reduction and temperature-stabilization in regard to the air-conditioner and insulating structure of
experimental building to cope with the hot summer and cold winter, which is becoming serious in
recent years. According to the statistics of yearly consumption of electric power and water and its cost, the electric power cost of air-conditioner is about 10 % of the total, which roughly provides a limit of the investment for the present purpose. A computer program, developed to calculate the temperature distribution in the building, successfully provided numerical results, which approximately agrees with measured temperatures. There are four candidates for the energy reduction of the building in hot summer;1) introduction of out-door air,2) high reflection paint on the roof,3) high reflection sheet on the ceiling,4) water spreading on the roof. Appling the program to the candidates, we found that the water spreading is the most effective, economic and easy, (but with a minor problem remained). At the same time, we can expect a drastic improvement of the temperature stabilization. Similarly, discussions are extended to the winter problem.
The Kunisaki Complex of the Ultra-Tamba Terrane in the Kawanishi-Inagawa area, southeastern part of Hyogo Prefecture, Southwest Japan, has been interpreted as a Late Permian subduction-related accretionary complex, containing some mafic rocks. The present study provides chemical characteristics of the basalt and dolerite in the Kunisaki complex. Although basalt and dolerite in the complex are more or less metamorphosed, the trace element spiderdiagrams and Zr/Nb ratio of them are similar to those in the E-MORB. These similarities suggest that mafic rocks of the complex were the origin of the mid-ocean ridge, in particular the mid-ocean ridge accompanying the hotspot like Iceland in Atlantic Ocean.