Littoral and riparian zones make a typical ecotone between terrestrial and pelegial or running-water
habitats. Concerning to the characteristics and conservation of the environment of these zones, the
following subjects are outlined and discussed.
(1) The natural environment of littora lzone. (2) Vegetations in littora lzone. (3) Ecological functions
of littoral vegetations. (4) Fish habitat and littoral vegetations. (5) Avian habitat and littoral
vegetations. (6) Dragonfly habitat and littora lvegetations. (7) Food plants of lepidopteran larvae and
riparian vegetations. (8) Water-quality conservation and littoral and riparian vegetations. (9) The
waterside landscape and littora lvegetations. (10) Causes of recent destruction of littora lvegetations in
Japan. (11) Problems in the conservation of natural environment of littoral zone. (12) Restoration of
In this paper, the value of a river as an attractiv espace is mentioned at first .A river has water and
various other natural elements. And a river is a valuable open space in an urban area. Also, it is pointed
out that a river offers a good visibilit yd,ue to the fact that the space on a river is vacant.
As for the relationship between river and town in Japan, a river originally provided a public space.
The riverside was an area for various performances, where a great number of show tents stood. Japanese
castle towns developed on riversides, where rivers were used for water transportation. However, in the
modern age, the relationship between town and river became less intimate because of changes in flood
control techniques, and the supersession of water transportation by land transportation.
Recently, as amenity has become the focus of public attention, the restoration of the people-friendly
character of a river has gained in importance.
For the improvement of the spatial characteristics of a river, it is important to plan the improvement
so as to suit the characteristics of a particular river. And it is also important to take human activitie son
the riverside into consideration. We have to find out the method of river improvement suited to a
particular kind of human activities.
Rivers are important in examining the conditions of townscape and environment. One can enjoy a
beautiful townscape from the bank of a river because of the good visibility it offers. The network of
rivers is important as the corridor linking ecosystems, and as the object of review aimed at redesigning
the circulation of water.
Diatom assemblages in sediments and sedimentary sulfur contents were analyzed to clarify
sedimentary environments during the late Holocene and to determine the upper limit of marine facies at
the Nakanotani site in Toyooka Basin, Hyogo Prefecture.
Three paleoenvironmental phases were recognized and deductions were made as to the sedimentary
environments as follows.
(1) Phase I (below the horizon of + 0.30m): Crassostrea bed and other molluskan fossils were found at
the horizons between 0m and + 0.30m. Crassostrea gigas obtained from the horizon of ca. + 0.30m
showed the 14C age of 3,110 =t 150 yrs BP. The appearance of marine diatoms such as Nitzschia
granulata and relatively high sulfur contents indicate that sedimentation took place under marine littoral
(2) Phase II (the horizons between + 0.30m and + 0.70m): High sulfur contents in peat sediments
indicate that sedimentation may have occurred under the influence of sea water such as in a salt marsh.
A brackish-water diatom Navicula pusilla appeared characteristically at the horizons between + 0.50m
and + 0.70m.
(3) Phase III (above the horizon of + 0.70m): Sulfur was not found in this phase. Although the
appearance of a freshwater diatom Amphora ovalis var. affinis above the horizon of + 1.0 m suggests
increasing wetness within the sedimentation basin, sedimentation is considered to have taken place under
semiterrestrial conditions such as in a flood plain.
Based on the molluskan fossils, diatom assemblages and sulfur contents in sediments, the upper limit
of marine facies at this site can be regarded to be the horizons between + 0.30m and + 0.70m.
Based on observations of 6 virgin and 8 mated queens by the 'single-individua ltrailing 'method for ca.
450 hrs, 46 behavior patterns were described, together with 32 worker behaviors closely related to
queens, and some short comments, if any. After the difference between virgin and mated queens was compared,
'egg laying', 'royal court formation' and 'balling behavior' were particularly discussed. The last 2,
which are worker behaviors and composed of 13 and 12 patterns respectively, may be based on 2 drives,
fleeing and aggression.
We would like to report on the results of our investigation into the effects of cutting on the grassland
community. Field experiments were conducted on the embankment grassland community at the Niyodo
river in Kochi Pref. from 1986 to 1991. In order to clarify the effects of cutting frequency on growth,
number of species, life-forms, floristic composition and species diversity of the community in which
Miscanthus sinensis and Imperata cylindrica var. koenigii were dominant, four experimental plots cut at
different frequencies (twice per year, once per year, once per two years and no cutting) were designated
in the community. In the plots with no cutting, one cutting per two years and one cutting per year, the
communities were progressively dominated by Miscanthus sinensis. Only in the plot that received two
cuttings per year did the community remain dominated by Miscanthus sinensis and Imperata cylindrica
var. koenigii. In the plots that received no cutting and one cutting per year, the number of species and
species diversity of the community were reduced. By contrast, in the plots that received one and two
cuttings per year, the number of species and species diversity of the community remained at the same
level as when the experiments started. Seasonal change was clearly evident in the plots that received one
and two cuttings per year, whereas it was not evident in the other plots. This resulted in the reduction
of summer annual plants because of the extreme domination of Miscanthus sinensis.
Field experiments were conducted on the embankment grassland community at the Ina river in Hyogo
Pref. from 1986 to 1989, to clarify the effects of cutting frequency on growth, floristic composition,
number of species, life-forms and species diversity of the community on the embankment slope. Four
experimental plots, different in cutting frequency, were designated in the community composed of
Miscanthus sinensis, Imperata cylindrica var. koenigii, Zoysia japonic a, Solidago altissima, Artemisia princeps
etc. In the non-cut plot, the community was progressive for the tall grassland community dominated by
Miscanthus sinensis; not only the number of species, but also species diversity, decreased. By contrast, in
the plot that received three cuttings per year, the community was retrogressive for the short grassland
community dominated by Zoysia japonica. In the plots that received one and two cuttings per year, the
main component species was Imperata cylindrica var. koenigii. Seasonal change was distinctly recognized
in the plots that received two and three cuttings, whose spring-early summer aspects were characterized
by winter annual plants and summer-autumn aspects by summer annual plants.
Animal behaviour and plant phenology are directly affected by the weather. Traditionally, human foodgathering
activitie swere also often dependent on the weather. The flying height of a hawk-eagle reveals the
coldness of that particular day. The jumping direction of a dugong over the sea is also a good indicator
to judge the weather of that day. The flight of a large swarm of a particular dragonfly over the sea indicates
that a typhoon is imminent. The extent of bloom of a particular plant species is correlated with the
degree of drought in that year. The flowering of some plant species teaches people to cultivate particular
kinds of plants in the fields or gardens. Animal behaviour and plant phenology have been shown to be
good indicators for planning subsistence activitie s(gathering, fishing ,hunting and farming) .
The Ryukyu Archipelago is located in the southernmost, subtropical part of Japan. The weather here is
much less seasonally influenced than in mainland Japan, and the Islands frequently suffer much more
from the irregular occurrence of droughts and typhoons. Species diversity in the Archipelago is much
greater than in mainland Japan. The Ryukyu Islanders are favoured with rich biological resources that
help to predict meteorological disasters and anticipate physical changes in the natural environment.
Accordingly their food-gathering activities are clearly closely related to behavioural characteristics in
accordance with the phenological change of fauna and flora. The ecological-anthropological context of
these correlationships is described and examined.
This survey was conducted in March 1993 with the aim of clarifying the status of environmental
education at all elementary, junior high and senior high schools in Hyogo prefecture.
Results show that about 30% of the schools cope with environmental education systematically, and
that use of this approach will increase in the future. Many teachers need appropriate teaching materials
and supplementary readers in order to educate effectively within their limited school hours.
It is suggested that the public sector, such as local government, school board and museum, support
environmental education in schools by offering some places, faciliti easnd information for environmental
education. For example, it would be useful to construct places for natural observation study, to offer
precise information about the local environment, and to present teaching materials and progressive
This is a report on a study of environmental education at primary schools in Hyogo prefecture
utilizin gthe resources of, and industrial activitie sin, the local community. Such education will be a great
help in advancing the local community. This report discusses the results of studies, using questionnaires,
on initiatives in environmental education, as well as on the opinions of teachers on this type of education.
Environmental education should take up the natural resources of the local community as subjects. In this
education, children's abilities to think and work independently should be developed. Appropriate
initiatives introduced by teachers have resulted in excellent programs in this education. And it is very
important for this education to refer to industrial activitie sin the local community and to direct children
to participat ein the activitie sof various local ,public organizations.