Humans and Nature
Online ISSN : 2185-4513
Print ISSN : 0918-1725
ISSN-L : 0918-1725
Volume 3
Showing 1-10 articles out of 10 articles from the selected issue
  • 1994 Volume 3 Pages 1-15
    Published: 1994
    Released: November 01, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Littoral and riparian zones make a typical ecotone between terrestrial and pelegial or running-water habitats. Concerning to the characteristics and conservation of the environment of these zones, the following subjects are outlined and discussed. (1) The natural environment of littora lzone. (2) Vegetations in littora lzone. (3) Ecological functions of littoral vegetations. (4) Fish habitat and littoral vegetations. (5) Avian habitat and littoral vegetations. (6) Dragonfly habitat and littora lvegetations. (7) Food plants of lepidopteran larvae and riparian vegetations. (8) Water-quality conservation and littoral and riparian vegetations. (9) The waterside landscape and littora lvegetations. (10) Causes of recent destruction of littora lvegetations in Japan. (11) Problems in the conservation of natural environment of littoral zone. (12) Restoration of littoral vegetations.
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  • 1994 Volume 3 Pages 17-27
    Published: 1994
    Released: November 01, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    In this paper, the value of a river as an attractiv espace is mentioned at first .A river has water and various other natural elements. And a river is a valuable open space in an urban area. Also, it is pointed out that a river offers a good visibilit yd,ue to the fact that the space on a river is vacant. As for the relationship between river and town in Japan, a river originally provided a public space. The riverside was an area for various performances, where a great number of show tents stood. Japanese castle towns developed on riversides, where rivers were used for water transportation. However, in the modern age, the relationship between town and river became less intimate because of changes in flood control techniques, and the supersession of water transportation by land transportation. Recently, as amenity has become the focus of public attention, the restoration of the people-friendly character of a river has gained in importance. For the improvement of the spatial characteristics of a river, it is important to plan the improvement so as to suit the characteristics of a particular river. And it is also important to take human activitie son the riverside into consideration. We have to find out the method of river improvement suited to a particular kind of human activities. Rivers are important in examining the conditions of townscape and environment. One can enjoy a beautiful townscape from the bank of a river because of the good visibility it offers. The network of rivers is important as the corridor linking ecosystems, and as the object of review aimed at redesigning the circulation of water.
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  • 1994 Volume 3 Pages 29-36
    Published: 1994
    Released: November 08, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Diatom assemblages in sediments and sedimentary sulfur contents were analyzed to clarify sedimentary environments during the late Holocene and to determine the upper limit of marine facies at the Nakanotani site in Toyooka Basin, Hyogo Prefecture. Three paleoenvironmental phases were recognized and deductions were made as to the sedimentary environments as follows. (1) Phase I (below the horizon of + 0.30m): Crassostrea bed and other molluskan fossils were found at the horizons between 0m and + 0.30m. Crassostrea gigas obtained from the horizon of ca. + 0.30m showed the 14C age of 3,110 =t 150 yrs BP. The appearance of marine diatoms such as Nitzschia granulata and relatively high sulfur contents indicate that sedimentation took place under marine littoral conditions. (2) Phase II (the horizons between + 0.30m and + 0.70m): High sulfur contents in peat sediments indicate that sedimentation may have occurred under the influence of sea water such as in a salt marsh. A brackish-water diatom Navicula pusilla appeared characteristically at the horizons between + 0.50m and + 0.70m. (3) Phase III (above the horizon of + 0.70m): Sulfur was not found in this phase. Although the appearance of a freshwater diatom Amphora ovalis var. affinis above the horizon of + 1.0 m suggests increasing wetness within the sedimentation basin, sedimentation is considered to have taken place under semiterrestrial conditions such as in a flood plain. Based on the molluskan fossils, diatom assemblages and sulfur contents in sediments, the upper limit of marine facies at this site can be regarded to be the horizons between + 0.30m and + 0.70m.
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  • 1994 Volume 3 Pages 37-77
    Published: 1994
    Released: November 08, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Based on observations of 6 virgin and 8 mated queens by the 'single-individua ltrailing 'method for ca. 450 hrs, 46 behavior patterns were described, together with 32 worker behaviors closely related to queens, and some short comments, if any. After the difference between virgin and mated queens was compared, 'egg laying', 'royal court formation' and 'balling behavior' were particularly discussed. The last 2, which are worker behaviors and composed of 13 and 12 patterns respectively, may be based on 2 drives, fleeing and aggression.
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  • 1994 Volume 3 Pages 79-83
    Published: 1994
    Released: November 08, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
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  • 1994 Volume 3 Pages 85-98
    Published: 1994
    Released: November 08, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    We would like to report on the results of our investigation into the effects of cutting on the grassland community. Field experiments were conducted on the embankment grassland community at the Niyodo river in Kochi Pref. from 1986 to 1991. In order to clarify the effects of cutting frequency on growth, number of species, life-forms, floristic composition and species diversity of the community in which Miscanthus sinensis and Imperata cylindrica var. koenigii were dominant, four experimental plots cut at different frequencies (twice per year, once per year, once per two years and no cutting) were designated in the community. In the plots with no cutting, one cutting per two years and one cutting per year, the communities were progressively dominated by Miscanthus sinensis. Only in the plot that received two cuttings per year did the community remain dominated by Miscanthus sinensis and Imperata cylindrica var. koenigii. In the plots that received no cutting and one cutting per year, the number of species and species diversity of the community were reduced. By contrast, in the plots that received one and two cuttings per year, the number of species and species diversity of the community remained at the same level as when the experiments started. Seasonal change was clearly evident in the plots that received one and two cuttings per year, whereas it was not evident in the other plots. This resulted in the reduction of summer annual plants because of the extreme domination of Miscanthus sinensis.
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  • 1994 Volume 3 Pages 99-115
    Published: 1994
    Released: November 08, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Field experiments were conducted on the embankment grassland community at the Ina river in Hyogo Pref. from 1986 to 1989, to clarify the effects of cutting frequency on growth, floristic composition, number of species, life-forms and species diversity of the community on the embankment slope. Four experimental plots, different in cutting frequency, were designated in the community composed of Miscanthus sinensis, Imperata cylindrica var. koenigii, Zoysia japonic a, Solidago altissima, Artemisia princeps etc. In the non-cut plot, the community was progressive for the tall grassland community dominated by Miscanthus sinensis; not only the number of species, but also species diversity, decreased. By contrast, in the plot that received three cuttings per year, the community was retrogressive for the short grassland community dominated by Zoysia japonica. In the plots that received one and two cuttings per year, the main component species was Imperata cylindrica var. koenigii. Seasonal change was distinctly recognized in the plots that received two and three cuttings, whose spring-early summer aspects were characterized by winter annual plants and summer-autumn aspects by summer annual plants.
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  • 1994 Volume 3 Pages 117-137
    Published: 1994
    Released: November 08, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Animal behaviour and plant phenology are directly affected by the weather. Traditionally, human foodgathering activitie swere also often dependent on the weather. The flying height of a hawk-eagle reveals the coldness of that particular day. The jumping direction of a dugong over the sea is also a good indicator to judge the weather of that day. The flight of a large swarm of a particular dragonfly over the sea indicates that a typhoon is imminent. The extent of bloom of a particular plant species is correlated with the degree of drought in that year. The flowering of some plant species teaches people to cultivate particular kinds of plants in the fields or gardens. Animal behaviour and plant phenology have been shown to be good indicators for planning subsistence activitie s(gathering, fishing ,hunting and farming) . The Ryukyu Archipelago is located in the southernmost, subtropical part of Japan. The weather here is much less seasonally influenced than in mainland Japan, and the Islands frequently suffer much more from the irregular occurrence of droughts and typhoons. Species diversity in the Archipelago is much greater than in mainland Japan. The Ryukyu Islanders are favoured with rich biological resources that help to predict meteorological disasters and anticipate physical changes in the natural environment. Accordingly their food-gathering activities are clearly closely related to behavioural characteristics in accordance with the phenological change of fauna and flora. The ecological-anthropological context of these correlationships is described and examined.
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  • 1994 Volume 3 Pages 139-148
    Published: 1994
    Released: November 08, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    This survey was conducted in March 1993 with the aim of clarifying the status of environmental education at all elementary, junior high and senior high schools in Hyogo prefecture. Results show that about 30% of the schools cope with environmental education systematically, and that use of this approach will increase in the future. Many teachers need appropriate teaching materials and supplementary readers in order to educate effectively within their limited school hours. It is suggested that the public sector, such as local government, school board and museum, support environmental education in schools by offering some places, faciliti easnd information for environmental education. For example, it would be useful to construct places for natural observation study, to offer precise information about the local environment, and to present teaching materials and progressive examples.
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  • 1994 Volume 3 Pages 149-154
    Published: 1994
    Released: November 08, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    This is a report on a study of environmental education at primary schools in Hyogo prefecture utilizin gthe resources of, and industrial activitie sin, the local community. Such education will be a great help in advancing the local community. This report discusses the results of studies, using questionnaires, on initiatives in environmental education, as well as on the opinions of teachers on this type of education. Environmental education should take up the natural resources of the local community as subjects. In this education, children's abilities to think and work independently should be developed. Appropriate initiatives introduced by teachers have resulted in excellent programs in this education. And it is very important for this education to refer to industrial activitie sin the local community and to direct children to participat ein the activitie sof various local ,public organizations.
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