The alluvia llowland along the Muko River in the southwestern part of the Sasayama basin is composed of clay and silt beds named the Benten Kokudo possibly of a lacustrine origin. We determined the subsurface structure of this lowland using the electric prospecting method, and the depositional ages of the alluvia ldeposit by volcanic glass analysis and 14C dating. The deposit is 2 to 7 meters thick and immediately above the gravel beds more than 20 meters thick. Along the section where the river cuts the Furuichi lineament striking northeast to southwest, the
base and surface of the gravel beds have probably been displaced by about 20 meters and 1 to 2 meters, respectively. This suggests the possibility of late Quaternary active faulting along the lineament. The deposit is divided into two lithostratigraphic units : the upper fluvial unit and lower finer lacustrine unit deposited at approximately 25000 to 6300 yBP. The upper unit was deposited after 2930 yBP and is restricted to the lowland area close to the present river course. The subsurface structure and depositional ages show the complicated historical changes of this lowland somewhat different from the previous interpretation that it is simply of a lacustrine origin.
In Kyushu, the large-scale lucidophyllous primitive forests have been preserved mainly in the national forests. These forests are excellent field sfor the study of biodiversity .Nine national forests in Mt. Inaodake, Takakuma, Mt. Kurinodake, Shiratori, Ayaminami, Ayakita, Mt. Ichibusayama, Mt. Sumiyama and Mt.Taterasan were selected for studying the species richness. We compared species richness, namely, the mean number of lucidophyllous elements (component species of lucidophyllous forest) per quadrat (lOOrrf) in nine localitie sand clarifie dthe relationship between species richness and environmental conditions. The mean number of total species and the mean number of the lucidophyllous elements per quadrat (100mJ) ranged from 76.0 and 50.8 in Takakuma to 33.1 and 31.1 in Mt. Taterasan, respectively. The high number of species in Takakuma is caused by an adjacent canopy gap. The correlation between the mean number of lucidophyllous elements per quadrat (100 m2) and the mean air temperature of the coldest month in eight localitie sexcept in Takakuma shows a highly significan tlinear regression.
We analyzed fetal development, rumen contents, body fats, and organ mass of sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck) as indices for sika deer conditions assessment in Hyogo Prefecture. All adult female sika deer were pregnant at the time of January to May. Estimated conception dates and fetal development were not delayed compared to the data of the 1980 s. Tree categories, evergreen broad-leaves, deciduous broad-leaves and graminoids made up the main diet, being more than 70% of rumen composition, year-round. These food items chosen by sika deer showed evidence of good quality food resources for sika deer in this area. However, kidney fat
mass (KFM) and mandible marrow fat (MCF) indicated low levels through the year except for adult males in summer. These data suggested that characteristics of fat indices in sika deer did not indicate malnutrition but the trophic strategy of sika deer inhabiting west Japan. In evergreen forests sika deer can secure high quality food throughout the year, and hence they have no need to store fat accumulation. But these characteristics would be the defect for stochastic heavy snow accumulation or habitat deterioration because of lack of primary energy, fat accumulation. We recommended fetal development and rumen contents analysis to evaluate the condition status of the sika deer population in Hyogo.
We analyzed three-years dynamics of the population of hunters in Hyogo Prefecture. Based on the analyses, we produced a simulation model of hunters' dynamics. Using the model, we predicted 12-years dynamics of hunters population and examined necessary conditions for keeping the numbers at the present level. Hunters showed a minor increase and decrease over the three years. The number of trap hunters increased whereas that of gun hunters decreased rapidly ,resulting in a significan tdecrease of gun-hunters' composition. Most hunters were over 50 years of age. The aging of the hunter population and the decrease of gun hunters were most
significant in the northern part of Hyogo Prefecture. Simulation results predicted the population of gun hunters after 12 years to be 0.64 larger than that of the present population. To maintain the number of gun hunters estimated at 12 years based on the present level, immigration and the retirement of gun hunters should be at four and a half times of the present level
Ligustrum lucidum, originating from China, is used as a re-vegetation tree in residential and urban areas in Japan. Recently, the incidence of L. lucidum trees that have become established beyond the planting sites has been increasing in urban areas. We found that L. lucidum had invaded the sandbank of the Inagawa River, Hyogo Prefecture, in western Japan. We studied a population of L. lucidum to consider how they adapted to a riparian environment and from which
locality did they spread. We investigated the distribution ,height, DBH, fructificatio na,nd position relationship between the planting site and individuals of L. lucidum on this sandbank. There were 94 individual trees. Their average height was 3.1 m, their average diameter at breast height was 3.5 cm and their average number of sprouts per stump was 5.3. The number of trees bearing fruit was 44. These results suggest that L. lucidum can adapt to a riparian environment and expand its distribution across rivers. The nearest planting site of L. lucidum, that was composed of many individuals was from the sandbank ; within the distance that birds often carry seeds of plants. It was confirmed that L. lucidum on the sandbank had come from the nearest planting site.
We conducted annual one-day researches of the early winter bird community in Harima, Hyogo Prefecture from 1993 to 2002. The study area is a pond-arable complex with patches of residential areas. We usually recorded more than 30 species of birds per research and 59 species were recorded over the 10-year period. Of the 59, 16 species of water birds (true water birds and wading birds) and 14 species of land birds were regular within the community,
while 21 species were recorded in less than four winters. The great cormorant, the feral pigeon and the tree sparrow increased during the 10 years. The lapwing began to appear in the latter half of the 10 years. The increase of the pigeon and the sparrow could be related to the urbanization of the study area during the study period. Although no bird species were shown to have decreased, the records of endangered water bird species listed in the Kinki Red Data Book were restricted to the earliest three years. This could be the result of the changes in pond environment caused by gardening, waste and removal of reed beds that occurred after 1995 in this area.
We undertook a questionnaire-based survey in Hyogo prefecture Residents were asked about their knowledge and opinion of the management of sika deer and Japanese black bear. We classified the respondents into three groups according to their personal feelings toward to these animals : 'be around habitats these animals (Group 1)' 'not be around their habitats but know they inhabit Hyogo prefecture (Group 2)' ,and 'not know they inhabit Hyogo prefecture (Group 3)' .The three groups showed differences in opinions ;respondents in Group 1 tended to demand
control, but the other two groups tended to demand preservation. However, most respondents did not recognize the issue of preservation and control as an antinomy. Most respondents recognized tax as the main source of preservation and control of the animals, but opinions on the share of expenses by those adversely affected and by preservationists differed among the groups. Many respondents did not fully recognize the governmental programs for management, but considered that decisions should be taken by governments. Based on these results, we discuss the challenges faced in regard to wildlif emanagement.