We obtained sediment samples from the Kasumi-Awara archaeological site in the Toyooka
Basin, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. In order to clarify changes in sedimentary environments at this
site, we analysed the diatom assemblages and carried out sulfur analysis of sediments. These
were then used along with two radiocarbon dates to determine the Holocene marine limit (HML),
which provides a sea-level index point approximating the height of the high water level.
Although no diatoms are found in the clay sediments containing abundant shell remains
between -1.68m and +0.04m altitude, sedimentary sulfur content more than 0.3% in most
samples generally indicates marine influence at these horizons. Sedimentary sulfur is abundant
and brackish-water diatoms are contained ≪ 10 valves per miligram of dry sediment) in clay and
sand sediments between +0.04m and +0.48m, indicating marine influence in sedimentary
environments. Freshwater diatoms dominate and sulfur content is less than 0.3% in the peaty
clay sediments between +0.48m and +0.85m, indicating freshwater depositional conditions.
Thus the height of HML is regarded to be +0.48m altitude .From the altitud eof the HML and the
inferred paleo-tida lrange at this site ,the height of paleo-mean sea level at about 2150 calBP is
estimated to be +0.26m altitude
The forest in the upper reaches of the Shiratori River in the Kirishima mountain system,
Miyazaki prefecture is one of the largest and best preserved lucidophyllous forests in Japan. The
vegetation of both the closed canopy stands (mature phase) and the canopy gap stands (gap
phase) in the forest was studied in order to clarity the difference of species composition and
species richness between the two phases. The mature phase was differentiated by the presence
of 17 species (Bulbophyllum drymoglossum, Davallia mariesii, Selanginella involvens, Lepisorus
onoei, Asplenium wilfordii, Lemmaphyllum microphyllum and others). The gap phase was
differentiated by the presence of 52 species (Akebia trifoliata ,Callicarpa mollis, Mallotus
japonicus, Zanthoxylum ailanthoides ,Actinidia polygama, Rubus palmatus and others) .All of the
differentia lspecies of the mature phase were epiphytes which were elements of lucidophyllous
forest. 44 species in the differential species of the gap phase were summergreen trees,
summergreen shrubs, summergreen climbers, perennial herbs and others which composed the
Rosetea multiflorae ,the Fico-Mallotetalia ,and the Quercetalia serrate-grosserratae .The mean
number of occurring species in the mature phase and the gap phase is 40 and 67, respectively. It
has become clear that vegetation of gaps contributes to species richness in the lucidophyllous
We try to predict the changes of Sika deer density and agricultural damages in Hyogo
prefecture in 2001. The following four patterns of hunting plans are assumed: (a) hunting no
deer; (b) hunting the same numbers of deer in the same areas as they were hunted in 2000; (c)
hunting twice as many deer as were hunted in 2000 with hunted numbers allocated in the
proportion to density in 2000, (d) hunting twice as many deer as were hunted in 2000 with
hunted numbers allocated in the proportion to increase rate in 2000. The results suggest that, in
the case (a) ,the deer density and agricultura ldamage would not be reduced. In the case (c) ,these
would be reduced. We examine the reliabili tbyy comparing the prediction and actually observed
data in 2001, and discuss how to improve the forecasting methods and application of wildlife
management in Hyogo.
The Mukogawa River, one of major rivers in Hyogo Prefecture, west Japan, flows from the
southwestern part of the Sasayama Basin to the Osaka Bay through the Sanda Basin and more
downward mountaineous areas of the Rokko Uprift Zone. The intrabasinal watershed between
river systems of the Mukogawa River and its westward Kakogawa River has been poorly
known in the western part of the Sanda Basin. In the part, the 4.9 km long Ainogawa River
flowing eastwards into the Mukogawa River is close to the 4.3 km long unnamed river, a
tributary of the Tojyogawa River flowing southwards into the Kakogawa River. The exact
boundary between these two river systems in the Sanda Basin has been traced through detailed
field observation and the decipherment of topographic maps and an aerial photo. This
intrabasinal watershed is described and discussed topographically in this paper. It is inferred to
have migrated gradually eastwards mainly by a marked difference of the floor gradient between
these two small rivers as well as between the Mukogawa River in the Sanda Basin and the
Tojyogawa River. The degree and rate of the migration in the near future depend more largely
on artifici aclontrols than on natural environmental factors including tectoni cmovements.
A forest on Ikishima Island in Ako, Hyogo Prefecture, is one of the largest and richest
lucidophyllous forests dominated by Castanopsis cuspidata, Actinodaphne lancifolia,
Cinnamomum japonicum, Camellia japonica, Quercus glauca, Ternstroemia gymnanthera and
others in Hyogo Prefecture. This forest has been preserved by the residents in Sakoshi, Ako, as
the sanctuary of shrine Osake-jinja, and was designated as a natural monument by the Agency
for Cultural Affairs. Nevertheless, by the extraordinarilly luxuriant growth of the vine
Stauntonia hexaphylla, the forest canopy has been seriously damaged since the 1970's. We
concluded that it is necessary to manage the forest immediately. For the purpose of restoring the
original forest canopy, Stauntonia hexaphylla vines were cut by citizen participation on
February 16, 2002. We reported this procedure of the vegetation management of lucidophyllous
forest on Ikishima Island.
The vegetation of Satoyama (coppice forest ,rural forest ,summergreen secondary forest )in
Arimafuji Park, Hyogo Prefecture, was managed by citizen participation, for the purpose of
restoring the original physiognomy of the forest and increasing the species richness in the forest.
Three quadrates of 100m were set in the forest, which was identified with Quercetum variabiliserratae (Quercus serrata - Quercus variabilis forest) or Rhododendro macrosepari-Pinetum
densiflorae (Pinus densiflora forest) .About 15 persons investigated the florist iccomposition and
tree census of the vegetation of each quadrate and managed the vegetation by cutting lucidophyllos
trees and bamboo grasses. The time required for this management was about 3.5 hours.
The Rokkou Mountains were barren due to excessive human-use until the middle Meiji era
and were reforested since 1902 with the main purpose of flood control. The present mountains
are largely covered by Quercus serrata dominant forests and Pinus densiflora dominant forests.
And, as additiona lcommentary, continuous artifici aplrovisioning has been carried for wild boars
in several sites in southern slope of the mountains since 1948. For the present studies, we
selected 14 footpaths (3.7km in average and 52.2km in total )in an area extending from Mt. Maya
to the south-western part of Takarazuka city: about 14km E-W and 10 km N-S, and walked along
the paths detecting mammal traces in October 1998 for southern slope and in September 1999
for northern slope, respectively. When we encountered traces, we mapped the location and
collected the feces for later laboratory analysis. We found the traces of four mammal species'
presence: Japanese squirrels, weasel species, martens and wild boars, in the southern slope
neighboring high-populated urban area, and the traces of seven mammal species: the four species
mentioned above plus Kobe mole, Japanese hare, and Japanese fox additionally in the northern
slope. The trace of raccoon dog had never been encountered along the paths. Also, the western
part of the area neighboring farmland had higher biodiversity in mammal species than the
eastern part of the mountains. Frugivory of weasel species and marten, in which fecal samples
were larger than those of the others in sample size, was biased to Eurya japonica, Actinidia sp.,
and Akebia sp. The forest seem to succeed in lower biodiversity. This forests succession is
partly due to artificia ldisturbance through the provisioning for wild boars because of their
The population of Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus) in Hyogo prefecture has been
endangered to local extinction. However, human bear conflicts such as crop damage, misstrapping
and occasional appearance in human territory have continued. We report these conflicts:
Two cases of nuisance control in Kasuga town (June 30, 2002), Muraoka town (June 28, 2002)
; and a case of release of a miss trapped bear in Muraoka town (July 23, 2002). These cases have
suggested several issues regarding bear management, such as the lack of bear management
policies, no program for maintaining human safety, and the existence of bears that are
habituated to people. We discuss these issues to implement bear management both for human
safety and bear population persistence.
The purpose of this research is the characteristi carrangement of area resources ,as extracted
through workshop with citizen participation and the characteristic arrangement of the area
resources which Sanda City releases. As a result the area resources in Sanda City are classifie dinto three categories such as nature, history and culture, and people and life. In addition, two particular area resources of various natural environments such as the wild animals and secondary forests and people and scenery of daily life were extracted. The Green Tourism project is based on these data and will be advanced.
With the changing of school education due to introduction of integrated learning, schools often
try to have a tele-education program collaborated with museum. Most of the programs, however,
are one-way communication where by children receive only knowledge from experts. In order
to make collaborative programs, teachers and experts must attach greater importance to the
process of learning than to the result of it .We experimentally conducted a process-oriented
program of integrated learning at Nishiyama Elementary School (Takarazuka City) in relation to
field studies and television conferences. This paper reports a case study about integrated
learning in which we thought up alternative programs and their effects.
We seeded the nurseries in a glasshouse with three native tree species, Quercus serrata, Q.
variabilis and Castanea crenata. The seeds were collected from secondary forest in Flower-
Town, Sanda city at October of 1994. In the early spring of 1996, we planted a field with the
seedlings. The mean height of these three tree species after three years was nearly the same, but
that of Q. variabili safter six years was higher than the others.
Geographic distributio ndata are given for an invading insect ,Ophraella communa (Coleoptera:
Chrysomelidae) now rapidly spreading in Japan. One hundred and fifty records from 77 sites
are compiled in and around Hyogo Prefecture from summer of 1999 to spring of 2001. It is
shown that distribution of the beetle expanded in all over the Prefecture by the end of 2000,
after the first discovery in the area in June 1998.
An annotated list of Chrysomelidae of Sanda City, southwestern Hyogo Prefecture, is given.
The list includes 13 subfamilies and records 119 species with their collecting sites and ecological
data. Most are common species found in the prefecture but recorded for the first time from