The topography, vegetation and soil properties were investigated in a stand of red pine (Pinus
densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) forest on a ridge-shaped slope in Sanda City, Hyogo Prefecture. The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between the degree of damage of the forest from the pine wilt disease and environmental and topographic factors, such as the position on the slope and the maximum capillary-water capacity of the soil. The degree of elongation growth of the red pine tended to be smaller on the upper part of the slope than the lower part. There was also a tendency of more frequent, severer pine root die-back damage on the lower part of the slope than the upper part. The total basal area was higher in plots with severe pine wilt damage than in other plots. The soil in the investigated area was thin in effective depth and poor development. The soil water-repellency was weaker in plots with severe pine wilt damage than in the other plots. Plots with severe damage from the pine wilt disease had a better soil moisture environment than the other plots. Resistance of the red pine to the dryness was weak, and trees that had developed in a good moisture environment appeared prone to root desiccation during periods of extraordinary summer dryness.
Three species of the Middle Permian (Capitanian) and 33 taxa of the Late Permian (Lopingian)
foraminifers are distinguished from the Nukada Formation correlatable to the upper formation of the Maizuru Group in the Shimo-Yakuno area, Kyoto Prefecture. Capitanian foraminiferal fauna from
conglomerate is less diversi ed in comparison with the contemporaneous ones in the Maizuru Terrane. Either Wuchiapingian or Changhsingian is not easily determinable in the Lopingian foraminifers from limestone. Palaeofusulina sinensis and Colaniella parava characteristic in the upper formation of the group in other areas are absent in the Shimo-Yakuno area. Capitanian Lepidolina maizurensis and Lopingian Colaniella cuneiformis are systematically described.
Yakushima Island is located south of Kyushu, mainland Japan, and is known as one of the hot spots embracing rich bryophyte fl ora in East Asia. Bryophyte species richness within the island was investigated by surveying a total of 123 belt-transects (each 4×100 m in area). Data from 64 belt-transects set at intervals of 500 m along a 32 km-long mountain trails from Onoaida to Nagata via Mt. Miyanoura and Mt. Nagata were treated in this paper. Main results are as follows: (1) Transects with high species richness were detected not at lowlands with drier climate but at higher altitudes where forests were prone to be covered by fogs; (2) Transects with highest species richness were found between Arakawa trail entrance and Yodogo mountain hut. In addition, multiple rare and endangered bryophytes that had been overlooked previously were detected during this survey. These results suggest that the long belt-transect method is one of the effective means in order to grasp bryophyte species richness, although it may require a lot of
time and effort.
Security against language- and/or communication-disorders has not been regarded as an important element in the lifelong learning facilities in traditional thinking. I reconsider the disorders and clarify how to create easy-to-read materials beyond the type of impairments. As disorders closely related to the facilities, I pick up intellectually challenged, autism, hearing-loss and deafness, low-vision and blind, children- and adult-aphasia, and dementia. AAC (Augmentative and Alternative Communication) is effective for peoples who have language- and/or communication-disorders, but how to represent is challenging in the facilities for the future. Various reports released by IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) about the consideration for peoples with language- and/or communication-disorders are helpful for many readers and also effective in the facilities. Multimedia DAISY (Digital Accessible Information System) is promising in ICT (Information and Communication Technology) and adaptable for various disorders because it represents not only easy-to-read sentences but also visual-stimuli. The ICT is helpful for the disorders, but we must also reconsider the effectiveness of people-based aids. The staffs of lifelong learning facilities should train hemselves in caring with the persons with disorders, exchange information with their organizations, and employpersons with disorders.
Morphologic variation of ve species of Parafusulina (P. yabei, P. tomeganensis, P. shimotsukensis, P. tochigiensis, and P. japonica) are described among samples from twelve stratigraphic levels in the Middle Permian Nabeyama Formation, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Variabilities of them were analyzed by showing many microphotographs and histograms of the frequency distribution of some measurable characters of the test, proloculus size, and length, width, form ratio, thickness of wall, and septal counts in the seventh whorl. Highly variable morphologic characters gradually changing from specimen to specimen distinguished in these ve species are thought to serve as a reference also for recognition and classi cation of other fusulinoidean species, and important for recognizing biodiversity of the past and for discussing related problems.