[Objective]This systematic review was aimed at determining the effect of pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PGP) on gait in pregnant and postnatal women. [Methods]This systematic review was undertaken following the PRISMA guidelines. Six electric databases and pre-existing literature were researched. Each article was evaluated by using Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomized Studies (RoBANS). Selected articles were classified into three categories; 1) gait speed, 2) step length, step width, gait cycle, and 3) thoracic, pelvic, trunk and hip joints movements and center of pressure (COP) based on the features of gait in pregnant and postpartum women with PGP.[Results]Six articles were included in this systematic review. The six articles found that pregnant women with PGP showed decrease in the gait speed and step length, while step wide was not significant different between pregnant women with PGP and without PGP. In addition,thoracic and pelvic rotation were increased, and anterior and posterior tilts of the pelvis and hip extension movements were limited in pregnant women with PGP. [Conclusion] Pregnant women with PGP have changes in gait patterns. The influence of PGP on gait pattern in postpartum women was not understood.
This study examined the usefulness of the 30-Second Chair Stand Test (CS-30),which was developed as a method to measure elderly peopleʼs lower limb muscle strength,for the physical fitness assessment of elementary school students. In addition to the CS-30 score and hand grip strength, the height, weight, number of sit-ups, sit-and-reach test score, repeated sideways jump time, standing long jump distance, and duration of the double-support period were measured in a total of 157 first to fourth-gradeelementary school students (male: 86, female: 71, mean age: 7.5±1.2). The sit-and-reach test score varied between males and females, but there were no sex differences in the other parameters. Correlation analysis revealed significant correlations between the CS-30 score and all physical function parameters, although such correlations were not observedwiththe height or weight. The results support the usefulness of CS-30 as a method to conveniently assess first to fourth-grade elementary school studentsʼphysical fitness without using special devices.
The relationship between the hip abductor strength on flexion/quadriceps femoris muscle strength and each physical function parameter was analyzedtoconfirm the usefulness of measuring the former. The hip abductor strength on flexion, quadriceps femoris muscle strength, toe grip strength, hand grip strength, number of sit-ups, sit-andreach test score, duration of standing on one leg with the eyes open, Timed UpandGotest (TUG) score, whole-body muscle mass, and leg muscle mass were measured in 274 community-dwelling elderly people (male:52, female:222, mean age:74.4±5.2). In the male group, both the hip abductor strength on flexion and quadriceps femoris muscle strength were significantly correlated with all physical function parameters, excluding the wholebody and leg muscle masses. In the female group, the 2 muscle strengths were significantly correlated with all physical function parameters, excluding the sit-and-reach test score and duration of standing on one leg with the eyes open. Based on the results, the hip abductor strength on flexion may be as useful as the quadriceps femoris muscle strength as an overall physical fitness index for elderly people.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to classify the association between the features of children who require detailed examination of musculoskeletal check and the results of physical fitness test. METHODS: Musculoskeletal check and physical fitness test were conducted for 169 elementary school children, and the motor skills of 2 groups based on their motor screening results (requiring/not requiring detailed examination) were compared. RESULTS: Among the 169 children, 77required and 92 did not require detailed examination, according to their results of musculoskeletal check. On motor skill assessment,there were differences between the 2 groups only in the 30-second Chair Stand Test, as those requiring detailed examination showed significantly lower values, but the effect size was small, at d=0.47. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that measures of early detection of locomotive syndrome in children are more necessary than those of musculoskeletal disorders by musculoskeletal check.
We compared physical and cognitive function, daily life activity, and the characteristics among community-dwelling elderly women. Participants were categorized into Independent (20 women considered independent), Support (19 women needing category 1 and 2 support), and Nursing care (21 women needing category 1 and 2 nursing care) groups.We evaluated grip strength, 10-s chair stand test (CS-10), timed up-and-go test (TUG), functional reach test, 5-m maximum walking time (5 MWT), center-of-gravity sway test, Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index. CS-10 was significantly higher in the Independent group than the Support and the Nursing care groups. TUG was significantly higher in the Independent groupthanthe Nursing care group. Center-of-gravity sway test was significantly higher in the Independent and the Support groups, respectively, than the Nursing care group. The Independent group showed significantly higher physical functions than the Support and Nursing care groups. There were no significant differences in physical functions between the Support group and Nursing care group, therefore static balance functions are the attribution for the levels of care.
[Purpose] The relationship between the toe pressure strength when standing and risk of falls was examined to evaluate the former as an index of the latter. [Participants and Methods] Seventy-five care-dependent elderly people were included to measure their toe pressure strength when standing, Fall Risk Index (FRI-5) scores, and Kihon Check List, in addition to physical function parameters. The participants were divided into groups with and without an increased risk of falls, based on their FRI-5 scores, to identify factors increasing and decreasing the risk of falls. A cutoff to screen for an increased risk was also calculated. [Results] There were 42 with and 33 without an increased risk of falls. The toe pressure strength when standing, Kihon Check List, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score were correlated with the risk of falls. The cutoff toe pressure strength when standing to screen for an increased risk was 23.6 kgf. [Conclusion] The results support the usefulness of the toe pressure strength when standing to assess the risk of falls in the care-dependent elderly.
[Purpose] This study examined the relationship between toe grip strength and ankle angle during comfortable gait or maximum gait, aiming to clarify whether ankle angle was affected exert toe grip strength. [Subjects] The subjects were 27 healthy young women. [Methods] We measured ankle angle during comfortable gait or maximum gait and toe grip strength in 3 different ankle joint positions between the long axis of the foot and the line of progression on the sagittal plane, namely ankle abduction, ankle neutral position, ankle adduction. Relationships between toe grip strength and these measurement items were statistically analyzed using pearsonʼs correlation coefficient. [Results] A negative correlation was observed between toe grip strength in ankle adduction and ankle angle during maximum gait. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that ankle angle during gait relate toe grip strength.